KCSE Past Papers HRE 2014

3.12.1 Hindu Religious Education Paper 1 (315/1)

1 (a) Name any five elements that make up the universe with reference to Giza 7:4. (5 marks)

(b) Explain ten ways of communicating with Paramatma in Sagun and Sakar form. (10 marks)

(c) Describe the role of Lord Shiva as the liberator. (5 marks)

2 (a) State five practices that Lord Mahavir observed during his life as an ascetic. (5 marks)

(b) Identify the role of Lord Vishnu in Kurma Avatar. (8 marks)

(c) Explain the contributions of Guru Gobind Singh to Sikhism. (7 marks)

3 (a) Identify five subjects whose knowledge is found in Atharva Veda. (5 marks)

(b) Give the contents of each of the Tripitika of Buddhism. (6 marks)

(c) Describe the events that led to the rescue of Sita by Lord Rama. (9 marks)

4 (a) Explain the teachings of Purva Mimansa which are applicable to the daily life of a Hindu. (7 marks)

(b) State five duties of a Sanyasi that contribute to the betterment of the society. (5 marks)

(c) Describe how the principle of Satya (truth) can help in curbing corruption in Kenya. (8 marks)

5 (a) Describe how the ritual of Pratikraman is performed by Jains. (8 marks)

(b) How can the following practices of eightfold path in Buddhism reduce human suffering?

(i) Samyak San/calp; (6 marks)

(ii) Samyak Vani. (6 marks)

6 (a) Identify the Panch Kosh of Sharir that leads to bliss. (5 marks)

(b) How does the practice of Yoga Asanas lead to physical well being? (10 marks)

(c) Explain Mirabai’s Atma Ni vedan Bhakti (total surrender) to Paramatma. (5 marks)

3.12.1 Hindu Religious Education Paper 2 (315/12

1 (a) Give reasons why Sanskars play an important role in the life of a Hindu.(7 marks)

(b) Describe the religious rituals of a Sikh Wedding ceremony (Anand Karaj).(7 marks)

(c) Explain the importance of the Jain Siddha C/ta/cra.(6 marks)

2 (a) Define the three types of Karma and give an example of each.(6 marks)

(b)Explain how the law of Karma can help a person living with HIV/AIDS to lead a positive life.(7 marks)

(c) Describe the importance of Artlw (livelihood) in Purushartha.(7 marks)

3 (a) Describe how the Sikhs celebrate Vaisakhi festival in Kenya.(8 marks)

(b) How did the celebrations of Mu/was/tivaratri affect the life of Swami Dayanand?(6 marks) (c) State the virtues developed by Jains during the Paryushan Parva.(6 marks)

4 (a) Describe the important places that Buddhists visit during the tirz/myatra of Buddha Gaya.(8 marks)

(b) Give reasons Why Sikhs visit Ammdpur.(6 marks)

(c) Explain the rituals performed by Hindus when visiting Kashi (Varanasi)(6 marks)

5 (a) State the means of propagation of Hindu Dhanna in modern times.(8 marks)

(b) Discuss the role of Chaitanya Mahaprabhu in spreading Bhakti Yoga.(8 marks)

(C) Give four teachings of Vedas that promote the preservation of the environment.(4 marks)

6 (a) State eight common features of a Jain Derasar and a Hindu Mandir.(8 marks)

(b) Describe the role of music in Hindu Worship.(6 marks)

(c) Explain the Hindu views on pre-marital sex.(6 marks)


4.12.1 Islamic Religious Education Paper 1 (315/1)

1. (a) Elements that make up the universe according to Gita 7:4

(i) Prithvi – earth

(ii) J al , Apa – water

(m) Agni – fire

(iv) Vayu – air

(v) Akash – space, ether

(vi) Buddhi – intellect, reason, logic

(vii) Manas – mind, mental

(viii) Ahamkar – ego

(ix) Atma – soul

(5 x 1 = 5 marks)

(b) Ways of communicating with Paramatma in Sagun and Sakar form

(i) Puja

(ii) Prayer

(iii) Satsang

(iv) Katha – recitation/listening

(v) Akhand Path

(vi) Individual prayer

(vii) Visit places of worship – Mandir, Derasar, Stupa, Gurudwara

(viii) Doing one’s dharma

(ix) Artha – acquiring wealth for good purposes

(x) Kama

(xi) Service to elders, priests, needy persons

(xii) Reading and understanding scriptures

(xiii) Listening to religious discourses

(xiv) Chanting, jaap, Naam J apha

(xv) Performing religious ceremonies

(xvi) Fasting

(xvii) Meditating

(10 x 1 = 10 marks)

(c) Role of Lord Shira as liberator

The way to liberation is shown by:

(i) doing tapas/austerities

(ii) detachment

(iii) renunciation

(iv) as Natraj shows total annihilation leading to a new creation

(v) Ash on his body signifies mortality of body. No desires as they are burnt

(vi) Trishul – trident shows 3 Gunas and how to transcent them

(vii) Damru/drum calls for us to wake up and understand our real self

(viii) How to survive in spite of evil that surrounds us by containing

(ix) From his attire, clothing etc, shows way to Moksha/Mukti by destroying our ego (x) Ganga flowing from his head is the river of knowledge to destroy ignorance.

(xi) River Ganga washes away sins.

(5 x 1 = 5 marks)

2. (a) Practices that Lord Mahavir observed during his life as an ascetic

(i) tapas – austerities

(ii) aparigraha – non acquisition, simplicity

(iii) ahinsa – non violence

(iv) asteya – non-stealing, no temptation

(v) sheel – Brahmacharya – celibacy

(vi) anekantvad – tolerance of other beliefs

(vii) satya – truth – true knowledge of soul/self

(viii) detachment

(iX) fasting

(X) meditation

(Xi) Not telling lies – living honestly

(5 x 1 = 5 marks)

(b) Role of Lord Vishnu in Kurma Avatar

(i) Dev and Danav chrned the ocean with Mandar as a pivot.

(ii) It began to sink, therefore Lord Vishnu took the form of a turtle and saved the mountain from sinking.

(iii) This resulted in a successful churning which brought out Poison

(iv) Laxmi

(v) Treasures – Kausthale – jewels

(vi) Airavat – elephant

(vii) Kandhami

(iii) Amrit

(x) Kalpavrux – tree

(xi) Parijat – flower

(xii) Dhanvantri – medicines

(xiii) Horse

(xiv)bow – weapons

(8 x 1 = 8 marks)

(c) Contribution of Guru Gobind Singh to Sikhism

(i) Introduced miri-piri – swords to represent physical and spiritual streng

(ii) He trained as a solder for 22 years at Anand Pur and instilled the virtues of soldiers in others

(iii) Wrote several compositions, hymns, shabads

(iv) He introduced J aap Sahib

(v) He wrote sawaiyyas

(vi) He established Gurudwaras/Temples/Akal takt

(vii) He preached against taboos

(viii) He preached against caste system

(iX) He advised people on dress codes

(X) He advised people on diet

(Xi) He administered Amrit to Panj Pyare as his disciples

(xii) He founded Khalsa Panth

(xiii) He established the tradition of five Kakkars

(xiv) He compiled the Guru Granth Sahib

(Xv) He declared the Guru Granth Sahib as the living Guru.

(xvi) He introduced ‘singh‘ for men and ‘kaur‘ for females to give them unique identities.

(7 x 1 = 7 marks)

3. (a) Five subjects whose knowledge is found in Atharva Veda

(i) medicine

(ii) surgery

(iii) astronomy

(iv) astrology

(v) law

(vi) engineering

(vii) mathematics

(viii) all sciences


(5 x 1 = 5 marks)

(b) The contents of Tripitika

(i) Dhammapada – stories of Buddha

(ii) Vinaijpilika – social code

(iii) Suttapitika – shloka – worship

(3 x 2 = 6 marks)

(c) Events that led to the rescue of Sita by Lord Rama

(i) J atayu informed Lord Rama about Sita’s abduction by Ravan – King of Lanka

(ii) Therefore they headed south – a definite direction

(iii) Kabudha advised Lord Rama to seek Sugriva’s help.

(iv) Matang Rishi showed how to locate Sugriva on Mountain Rishyamukha

(v) Hanuman carried Lord Rama and Laxman to the mountain to meet Sugreeva.

(vi) Sugreeva showed the jewels they had found.

(vii) Sugreeva sent out scounting parties to find Where Sita Was.

(viii) Sampati gave information about Sita’s exact place in Lanka.

(ix) Hanuman located Sita in Ashok Vatika.

(X) Nal, Neel, J ambvan all helped to build a bridge to cross the ocean.

(Xi) The army of Sugreeva and his soldiers fought along Rama to defeat Ravan and his soldiers/team.

(xii) Rama met Sita and rescued her.

(9 x 1 = 9 marks)

4. (a) Teachings of Purva Mimansa as applicable to the daily life of a Hindu

Purva Mimasa is written by Jaimini Rishi and it advises:

(i) to do/perform rites and rituals to attain specific desire e.g. to fast

(ii) to recite mantras for a specific time

(iii) to abstain from alcohol, drug, sex

(iv) to perform havan

(v) to pray on a daily basis

(vi) to perform the five yagna – Den yagna

(vii) manushya yagna

(viii) Bhut yagna

(iX) Athithi yagna

(X) Pitru yagna

(Xi) to repent for bad deeds

(Xii) not to be tempted

(xiii) not to be angry

(xiv) to have righteous living

(Xv) to have right action by thoughts, deeds and action

(7 x 1 = 7 marks)

(b) Five duties of a Sanyasi for the betterment of society

(i) to spread knowledge by giving religious discourses

(ii) to set an example how to live a simple life.

(iii) to show how to slowly give up worldly pleasures and aparigraha

(iv) to accept all without any barriers of caste, creed and religious

(v) to promote ethics

(vi) to promote morals and teach how to desist evil habits like alcoholism

(vii) to persevere in spite of criticism and difficulties.

(5 x 1 = 5 marks)

(c) How the principle of Satya helps in curbing corruption in Kenya

(i) to be true to one’s own self

(ii) to accept one‘s own wrong doing and accept punishment for any breaking of law (iii) – not bride to escape punishment.

(iv) to lead an honest life so as not to need more than necessary for living so not take bribes

(v) accept one’s own limitations and work accordingly.

(vi) professionally do one’s job honestly and truthfully and to one‘s best ability

(vii) a judge will judge without being influenced by bribes

(viii) a president will rule without bias and dishonesty

(iX) teachers will teach and help weak students without charging fees

(X) officers in public services will deliver without taking bribes.

(Xi) traders will keep profit margins reasonable

(Xii) no food stuffs will be adulterated

(Xiii)not to take/accept anything that is not earned.

5. (a) How the ritual of Pratikraman is performed by Jains

(i) All devotees get together and take their asanas.

(ii) The recite Naukar mantra soundlessly/silently.

(iii) They listen to the religious discourse based on a scripture.

(iv) They meditate and reflect on their deeds.

(v) They repent on any wrong doing and ask for forgiveness from the soul they have hurt knowingly and unknowingly.

(vi) They then pray for universal peace and reverence for life.

(vii) They carry their own asana – mat also a whisk to wave before the scripture.

(viii) The ritual lasts for 2 hours.

(ix) They recite stavans.

(x) The ritual ends with Naukar Mantra recitation.

(xi) Pratikraman is a congregational prayer conducted by a presiding person.

(8 x 1 = 8 marks)

(b) How the practice of Samyak Van and Samyak Sankalpa help reduce human suffering

(i) Samyak Vani / Right speech

(i) To speak word that please

(ii) avoid speech that hurts to the listener

(iii) avoid using harsh words

(iv) shun gossip and rumour mongering

(v) can criticize positively and considerately

(vi) avoid grumbling

(vii) speak clearly

(viii) avoid speaking when angry

(ix) shun abusive and derogatory words avoid idle chatter

flattery/back biting

(6 x 1 = 6 marks)

(ii) Samyak Sankalpa / Right aspirations / ambition

(i) is done to achieve aims

(ii) to desire for goals suited to one’s own talent/ aptitude and circumstances

(iii) to help others within one’s limits.

(iv) to assist one to go towards Nirvana by practicing religion and religious practices

(v) to have firm convictions and follow the way of Dhamma

(vi) make resolutions

(vii) frees mind of negative vices/ traits

(viii) leads to doing good deeds.

(6 x 1 = 6 marks)

6 (a) The panch kosh of a Shariv that lead to bliss

(i) annamaya – food

(ii) pranamaya – breath

(iii) manomaya – mind

(iv) vijnamaya – intellect

(v) anandmaya – bliss

(5 x 1 = 5 marks)

(b) Practices of Yoga asanas lead to physical Well being

(i)Breathing becomes regulated

(ii) Breathing becomes deep –

(iii) blood and oxygen reach all pans of body

(iv) All systems – circulation

(v) digestive

(vi) respiratory

(vii)excretory are improved

(viii) Muscles are toned

(ix) Weight is controlled

(X) Body becomes flexible

(Xi) Health improves

(xii) Immunity increases

(xiii) Posture improves

(xiv) Sex life improves.

(10 x 1 : 10 marks)

(c) Mira Bai’s Atma Nivedan Bhakti (total surrender) to Pramatma

(i) She drank the posion sent by Rana – with total trust in God – and Was not harmed

(ii) She accepted the garland of flowers – that Was a snake changed to a garland by her total surrender to God.

(iii) She devoted all her time and attention to Krishna.

(iv) She accepted all circumstances as Krishna’s Wish.

(v) She accepted expulsion from the palace – from a life of a queen to an ordinary person.

(vi) She danced and sang in front of Lord Krishna‘s murti without any fear of the society.

(vii) Her bhajans that she composed show her total dedication, devotion and love for Krishna.

(5 x 1 = 5 marks)

4.12.2 Hindu Religious Education Paper 2 (315/2)

1 . (a) Reasons why Sanskars (Rites) are important to Hindus:

An individual through these Sanskar

(i) acquires a unique identity of his/her own

(ii) obtains social acceptance

(iii) gets security through the rites in family and community

(iv) learns about specific duties of a person at each stage from birth to death

(v) promoted religious procedures and an understanding of them

(vi) gives moral and ethical values to an individual

(vii) Gets knowledge from the society and scriptures

(viii)Learns about the cultural heritage and

(iX) preserves the social customs and practices

(X) Takes responsibility – personal, social and universal

(Xi) Marks major milestones of life – birth, education, marriage, death, etc.

(7 x 1 = 7 marks)

(b) Religious rituals of a Sikh Wedding ceremony (Anand Karaj)

(i) The ceremony begins with the recitation of morning hymn Asa di var

(ii) The couple sit in front of the Guru Granth Sahib

(iii) The duties of the couple in their new life are explained by the presiding priest – Gyaniji

(iv) These duties are for the husband to protect and provide and the wife to be with her husband and take care of home

(v) The wife promises to be content and loyal to her husband

(vi) The couple accepts the teachings and to show their assent by bowing to the sacred scripture/GGS

(vii) The father performs the ceremony of giving consent to his daughter getting married to the groom – kanyadan

(viii) The four lavans – marriage hymns are recited

(iX) The couple go round the Adi Granth four times while the marriage hymns – lavans are recited

(X) The first five and the final verse of the Anand or marriage ceremony are recited The Ardas is performed

(Xi) Hukamnama is read

(Xii)Prasad is distributed.

(7 x 1 = 7 marks)

(c) The importance of Jain Siddha Chakra:

It reminds J ains of the five revered ones from all directions

(i) Siddha

(ii) Acharya

(iii) Upadhya

(iv) Sadhu

(v) Arihanta

(vi) It tells Jains to practise

(vii) Samyak Darshan – Right faith

(viii)Samyak Gnan – Right knowledge

(ix) Samyak Charitra – Right conduct

(x) It shows J ains how to burn their Karma through self discipline

(xi) tapes – austerities

(xii) a symbol /object of worship

(6 x 1 = 6 marks)

2. (a) Three types of Karma with an example of each.

(i) Vikarma – Action prohibited by Dharma

Telling lies, greed, temptation, false pride, irreligious, intoxication

(drugs and alcohol)

(ii) Akarma – Action which are natural

Breathing, eating, feeling hungry so eating, using the body for

movement, seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting

(iii) Anasakta – Action done without attachment to the deed or expectation of reward.

Doing one’s duty – mother cooking, father earning, helping a beggar,

stranger, fund-raising, adopting a child, paying fees for needy students,

taking care of senior citizens

(3 x 2 = 6 marks)

(b) How the Law of Karma can help a person living with HIV/AIDS to lead a positive life

(i) to accept what one is/ one‘s fate/ present circumstances/ gets mental bliss

(ii) the present is the result of past Karma (sanchita)

(iii) keep unquestioning trust in Paramatma

(iv) HIV/AIDS is one‘s own mistake cum fate gets self respect

(v) Others also give respect and accept him/her

(vi) Not to blame anyone

(vii) Do meritorious actions and ease the present

(viii) Keep one-self busy in spite of the illness – pray, meditate, worship, help others

(ix) Improve Prarabdha Karma (fate) by present Karma

(7 x 1 : 7 marks)

(c) Importance of Artha (livelihood) in Purushartha

(i) Artha means getting money/ finances through right livelihood and honest means

(ii) Money fulfils all desires

(iii) gets education

(iv) shelter

(v) comforts in life

(vi) mental peace

(vii) self-respect

(viii) pride in one‘s profession

(ix) enables service to family members

(X) social service

3. (a) How the Sikhs celebrate Vaisakhi in Kenya

Sikhs celebrate in Kenya as follows:

(i) Nishan Sahib, the Sikh flag is replaced by a new one

(ii) A service and prayers are held

(iii) The prayers are led by Panj Pyare

(iv) The flag post is taken down

(v) Chola – the flag cloth is removed and the flag post is cleaned and washed

(vi) It is then covered with a new chola/cloth and re-hoisted

(vii) Ardas is recited

(viii)Akhand path is arranged for two days prior to Vaisakhi

and the Bhog takes place on the morning of Vaisakhi

(ix) Discourses are given on the importance of Vaisakhi and religion

(x) Amrit ceremony is performed for new initiates

(xi) Competitions are held in sports, martial ans, poetry and essay writing

(xii) Sikhs enjoy the day by singing and dancing to Bhangra music

(xiii) Langar is served for three days ending on Vaisakhi day

(xiv) Sikhs give service to do seva during the whole day.

(8 x 1 = 8 marks)

(b) How the celebration of Mahashivratri affect the life of Swami Dayanand

(i) Dayanand Swami had kept a fast and vigil in the temple of Lord Shiva

(ii) He saw a little mouse come and climb the shiv linga

(iii) It started to nibble at the offerings

(iv) Dayanand started thinking “why does the Shirlinga does not defend itself against a little mouse?’

(v) On deep thought he concluded that the murti of Parmatma is powerless. His search for truth began

(vi) He studied the scriptures and vedas and learnt that Pramatma is formless – Nirakar

(vii) He started preaching against Murti puja and meaningless rituals

(viii) He started preaching the Arya Samaj which advocates and promotes the teachings of vedas

(iX) He promoted ved rites and rituals like performing of havan and sanskers

(X) He wrote Satyarth Prakash.

(6 x 1 = 6 marks)

(c) Virtues developed by Jains during Paryushan Parva

(i) self-discipline

(ii) compassion

(iii) forgiveness

(iv) brotherhood

(V) purity of mind

(Vi) purification of physical needs

(vii) detachment

(viii) humility

(iX) devotion

(X) amity

(Xi) reverence for all life

(xii) equanimity.

(6 X 1 = 6 marks)

4. (a) Important places a Buddhist visit during the tirthayatra of Buddhah Gaya

(ii) Pipal (Bodhi) tree under which Buddha attained enlightenment

(iii) The path that Buddha Walked on – near Mahabodhi temple

(iv) The Mahabodhi templel stupa

(v) Ratnaghara – roofless shrine

(vi) A holy pond at Gaya

(vii) Holy tree under which Buddha had stayed after enlightenment.

(viii) Monasteries teaching Vinay traditions

(iX) Stupas with Buddha’s golden statues

(X) Wheen of Dha.rma – prayer wheel

(Xi) Diamond throne

(Xii) Vihar gardens

(Xiii) Great wall round the Bodhi tree.

(8 x 1 = 8 marks)

(b) Reasons Why Sikhs visit Anand Pur

(i) Pious and holy city for Sikhs founded by Teg Bahadur

(ii) Takht Sahib is revered

(iii) Weapons are preserve

(iv) Langars are served daily

(V) Hola Maholla is celebrated annually

(Vi) First Panj Pyare were baptised here

(Vii) It is near the Golden Temple in Amritsar

(viii) After martyrdom of Teg Bahadur, his head Was cremated here

(iX) Two sons of Teg Bahadur were beheaded here

(X) Khalsa Panth Was founded by Gobind Singh.

(6 x 1 = 6 marks)

(c) Rituals performed at Kashi (varanasi)

(i) Do darshan of Ganga river.

(ii) Bathe in R. Ganga

(iii) Light and float diyas in the river

(iv) Do darshan in Shiv temples

(v) Ashes of departed souls after cremation is/are immersed in the Ganges (vi) Prayers are recited at river banks

(vii) Homage is paid to presiding deities

(viii) Shraddah is performed

(ix) Water is collected from R. Ganga to proceed to J agannath Puri for Chardham Yatra.

(X) This signifies conclusion and culmination of Char Dham Tirthyatra

(Xi) Aarti of Ganga is performed.

5. (a) Means of propagation of Hindu Dharma in modern times

(i) Religious discourses by visiting saints, scholas,

(ii) Katha – Ramayana, Mahabharat, Bhagwat Puran

(iii) Gatherings for performance of Sanskars – birth, marriage, death, etc.

(iv) Religious publications – on explanation of rituals

(v) Or weekly/ monthly magazines

(vi) Building temples – worship

(vii) Television – Ramayana and Mahabharat serials

(viii) CD‘s

(ix) Internet

(x) Radio

(xi) Different missions: Aiya Samaj, Swami Narayan, Brahma Sabha, Youth

(xii) activities – drama, dances etc

(xiii) Teaching religion in schools/ institutions

(xiv) Celebration of festivals

(xv) Films/ Animation or Regular features

(8 x 1 = 8 marks)

(b) Role of Chaitnya Mahaprabhu in spreading Bhakti Yoga:

(i) He sang in love in public and removed all sense of embarrassment from worship in the open.

(ii) He preached ‘love of Parmatma’ and pure love for Radha & Krishna.

(iii) He marched through the streets and hundreds joined him in chanting of

(iv) Parmatma‘s name and dancing joyously.

(v) he preached far and wide thus touching many people.

(vi) He popularized the chanting of Name as a way to salvation.

(vii) He held religious discourses every day.

(viii) He promoted daily l(lI‘t3IlS.

(iX) He founded Hare Krishna movement which evolves into ISKCON world wide.

(X) Dancing produces an escatsy and pure bliss.

(Xi) No priests or rites and rituals are needed.

(Xii) Vaishnavism grew in worship of Radha/Krishna.

(8×1 = 8 marks)

(c) Teachings of Vedas that promote the preservation of environment.

(i) Preaching oneness of life thus not harming any living beings.

(ii) Giving the teachings to worship, respect and revere all living beings.

(iii) By showing rites and rituals for purification of air.

(iv) By advocating planting and nurturing of trees.

(V) By preventing pollutions of all kinds.

(Vi) Promoting love and compassion for panch mahabhut.

(vii) Through worship promote pure vibrations.

(4 x 1 : 4 marks)

6. (a) The common features of a Jain Derasar and a Hindu-Mandir

(i) Garbh Graha – The shrine where Murtis are installed.

(ii) Antarala – Santuary

(iii) Shikhar – dome

(iv) Dhwaj – flag

(v) Umro – threshhold

(vi) Presiding Deity –

(vii) Kalash – water pot

(viii)Corridor for Pradakshina

(iX) Mandap – puja altar

(8 x 1 = 8 marks)

(b) The role of music in Hindu worship

(i)Produces pure vibrations

(ii) helps concentration

(iii) removes stress

(iv) is soothing

(v) rhythm is practised

(vi)melodious tunes are learnt

(vii) physical health is enhanced

(viii) mental health is given

(ix) relaxes devotees

(x) enjoyment if given

(xi) enlivens the atmosphere

(xii) appreciation for poetry and prose is increased

(xiii) emotions are brought out

(xiv) motivates many to participate.

(6 x 1 = 6 marks)

(c) Hindu views on pre-marital sex

(i) Indriya Nigraha means control of all sense organs

(ii) Celibacy before marriage – strict adherence to celibacy

(iii) Frowns and rejects babies born out of wed-lock

(iv) Illicit sex not permitted

(v) Strict rules for conduct for boys and girls – not to mix

(vi) Girls when reach the puberty to be protected by parents and guardians

(vii) Education is affected by loss of concentration

(viii) Thus lack or insufficient education means no professional qualifications

(iX) So that leads to low labour and less economic income

(X) May lead to criminal activities

(Xi) Pre-marital sex may lead to pregnancy bringing a social stigma or

(xii) lead to early marriage resulting in health problems for females.

(6 x 1 : 6 marks)