Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education

2019 Agriculture Paper 1

SECTION A (30 marks)

Answer all the questions in this section in the spaces provided.

I. Name four aspects of rain fall that affects agriculture. (2 marks)

2. State four factors that determine the depth of cultivation. (2 marks)

3. State four factors that influence the quality of farmyard manure.(2 marks)

4. State two factors that determine national income. (1 marks)

5. State four causes of land fragmentation. (2 marks)

6. Name two types of labour records.(2 marks)

7. State four ways in which crop pests are classified.(2 marks)

8. What is the minimum number of people required to form a co-operative society in Kenya? (½ marks)

9. Give two examples of fixed costs in maize production. (1 marks)

10. What is meant by the term production function? (1 marks)

11. State three characteristics of good trees for agroforestry.(1½ marks)

12. Name two varieties of sorghum grown in Kenya.(1 marks)

13. State four reasons why agriculture is important to Kenya’s economy.(2 marks)

14. Give two reasons why the use of fire is discouraged in land clearing.(1 marks)

15. State four ways in which mulching conserves water.(2 marks)

16. State four uses of fault records.(2 marks)

17. State four characteristics of shifting cultivation.(2 marks)

18. State the law of supply as used in agricultural marketing.(1 marks)

19. State four ways in which trees improve soil productivity.(2 marks)

20. What is meant by the term integrated pest management? (2 marks)

Section B (20 MARKS)

Answer all the questions in this section

21. The diagram below illustrate a tomato fruit infested by a field pest

(a) Identify the pest. (1 mark)

(b) State two ways in which the pest is economically important. (2 mark)

(c) State two cultural ways of controlling the pest. (2 mark)

22. The diagram below shows a weed

(a) Identify the weed. (1 mark)

(b) Using features on the diagram, give two reasons why it is difficult to eradicate the above weed. (2 marks)

(c) State two ways in which the weed is economically important. (2 marks)

23. The diagram below represent soil structures

(a) Identify the soil structure labelled M, N and P.

M…………………………………( 1 mark)

N…………………………………( 1 mark)

P…………………………………( 1 mark)

(b) Name the type of soil where each of the structures labelled N and Q is found.

N…………………………………..( 1 mark)

Q…………………………………..( 1 mark)

24, The diagram below shows an illustration of a crop field practice.

(a) Identify the field practice illustrated above.(I mark)

(b) Name two crops which require the practice illustrated.(2 mark)

(c) Give two reasons for carrying out the practice on one of the crops you have named in (b) above. (2 marks)

SECTION C (40 marks) Answer any two questions from this section

25. (a) Explain seven factors that should be considered when selecting seeds for planting. (7 marks)

(b) State four benefits of adequate and reliable rainfall in vegetable crop production. (4 marks)

(c) State four pieces of information contained in an invoice.(4 marks)

(d) State five roles of calcium in crop production.(5 marks)

26. (a) Describe how sugar cane is harvested.(5 marks)

(b) Explain four factors that determine the nutrient content of hay.(4 marks)

(c) State seven roles of a farm manager.(7 marks)

(d) Describe four methods used to reclaim a swampy land for agricultural production. (4 marks)

27. (a) Describe the production of carrots under the following subheadings:

(i) land preparation (3 marks)

(ii) planting (4 marks)

(b) Describe six ways in which grass cover helps in soil and water conservation. (6 marks)

(c) Explain seven nursery management practices. (7 marks)

Questions and Answers

2019 Agriculture Paper 1

I. Name four aspects of rain fall that affects agriculture. (2 marks) Rainfall intensity Rainfall distribution/pattern Rainfall amount Rainfall reliability

2. State four factors that determine the depth of cultivation. (2 marks) The type ot crop to be grown Type of implement used Soil moisture content Presence of hard pans Presence of underground obstacles Type of soil feed material eaten by the Animal

3. State four factors that influence the quality of farmyard manure.(2 marks) Species of the Animal Type of bedding material/litter used Method of storage Age of the farm yard manure Age of the Animal which produces the waste materials Type of animal Per capita income

4. State two factors that determine national income.(1 marks) Gross domestic product Gross national product Household firm relationship Natural resource endowment Shifting cultivation

5. State four causes of land fragmentation. (2 marks) Inheritance of land Population pressure leading to purchase of small scattered pieces. Accumulation of land holdings by money lenders due to debtors failing to pay Settlement and resettlement

6. Name two types of labour records.(2 marks) Muster roll Labour utilization analysis Storage pests

7. State four ways in which crop pests are classified.(2 marks) Field pests Biting and chewing pests Piercing and sucking pests Rodents Insect pests Scientific classification Stage of development Stage of growth of the crop attacked

8. What is the minimum number of people required to form a co-operative society in Kenya? (½ marks)Ten people

9. Give two examples of fixed costs in maize production. (1 marks) Salaries of permanent workers Insurance Rent Standing charges of telephone Depreciation cost of farm machinery Cost of buying machinery

10. What is meant by the term production function? (1 marks)It is the physical relationship between resource inputs and the corresponding output/product.

11. State three characteristics of good trees for agroforestry.(1½ marks)Fast growth rates Deep rooted Nitrogen fixing Good in by product production Leafy Highly branched Hardy

12. Name two varieties of sorghum grown in Kenya.(1 marks) Serena Dobbs Intama Humid Lulu

13. State four reasons why agriculture is important to Kenya’s economy.(2 marks)Source of food Source of employment Provision of raw materials for industries Provide market for industrial goods Source of income

14. Give two reasons why the use of fire is discouraged in land clearing.(1 marks)It kills soil micro-organisms Leads to loss of nutrients Destroys soil organic matter Leads to accumulation of ash that changes soil pH Destroys soil moisture Destroys soil structure

15. State four ways in which mulching conserves water.(2 marks)Prevents splash erosion/intercepts rain drops Reduces speed of surface run offs Reduces evaporation Increases water holding capacity Improves water infiltration

16. State four uses of fault records.(2 marks)Records help to compare the performance o1 different enterprises within a farm or other farms. They show the history of the farm. Guide a farmer in planning and budgeting of farm operations Help to detect losses or theft on the farm. Help in the assessment of income tax to avoid over or under taxation Help to determine the value of farm or to determine the assets and liabilities of the farm. Make it easy to share the profits and losses in partnerships Help in settling disputes among heirs to the estate when a farmer dies without leaving a will. Record help to show whether the farm business is making profits or losses. Help in insurance claims Provide labour information Help farmers to access credit

17. State four characteristics of shifting cultivation.(2 marks)Movement/shifting when soil loses its fertility Practiced where land is plenty Practicable with annual crops not with perennials Agricultural output is low Inputs such as pesticides, fungicides are rarely used Simple hand tools are used Land communally owned Population is sparse Low number of livestock per unit area

18. State the law of supply as used in agricultural marketing.(1 marks)

As the price of a commodity increases the quantity offered for sale increases and as the price of commodity falls the quantity supplied declines.

19. State four ways in which trees improve soil productivity.(2 marks)Conserve moisture Improve soil structure Control soil erosion Contribute plant nutrients/organic matter Is a combination of chemical, physical, biological and cultural

20. What is meant by the term integrated pest management? (2 marks)

Pest control methods.

Section B (20 MARKS)

Answer all the questions in this section

21. The diagram below illustrate a tomato fruit infested by a field pest

(a) Identify the pest. (1 mark)

American-bollworms

(b) State two ways in which the pest is economically important. (2 mark) Reduces the quality of produce by boring holes on fruits Increase the cost of production by purchase of pesticide

(c) State two cultural ways of controlling the pest. (2 mark)Early planting Field hygiene/Removal and destruction of affected crop residues Plant Mexican marigold in the field Destruction of alternate host Close season Crop rotation Intercropping

22. The diagram below shows a weed

(a) Identify the weed. (1 mark)

Nut grass/sedge/Cyperus rotundus

(b) Using features on the diagram, give two reasons why it is difficult to eradicate the above weed. (2 marks)It has underground nuts which regenerate. Produces many seeds to enhance survival chances

(c) State two ways in which the weed is economically important. (2 marks)Competes for nutrients with crops greatly reducing yield Increases production costs Reduces quality of pastures/can damage the teeth of livestock Blocks irrigation channels

23. The diagram below represent soil structures

(a) Identify the soil structure labelled M, N and P.M — Prismatic structure N — Platy structure P — Granular structure

(b) Name the type of soil where each of the structures labelled N and Q is found.N — Clay soil Q — Sandy soil

24, The diagram below shows an illustration of a crop field practice.

(a) Identify the field practice illustrated above.(I mark)

Earthing up;

(b) Name two crops which require the practice illustrated.(2 mark)Groundnuts Potatoes Irish potatoes Sweet Potatoes Maize

(c) Give two reasons for carrying out the practice on one of the crops you have named in (b) above. (2 marks)To improve tuber formation in Irish/sweet potato To encourage/improve seed formation in groundnuts To improve drainage and provide support in tobacco To provide support/prevent lodging in cereal crops like maize To prevent greening in root/ tuber crops;

SECTION C (40 marks)

Answer any two questions from this section

25. (a) Explain seven factors that should be considered when selecting seeds for planting. (7 marks)Adaptability — should be adapted to local ecological conditions Physical deformities/damages — should be free from physical deformities/damages Should be free from pests/diseases Viability/high germination percentage — should have high viability/ germination percentage Should be from high yielding/healthy plant early maturing Purity; should be clean/free from impurities Maturity; should be of correct maturity stage Age/storage period; seeds stored for long periods have low viability/germination percentage hence should not be selected Size of seeds; seeds should be of correct size

(b) State four benefits of adequate and reliable rainfall in vegetable crop production. (4 marks)Ensures adequate supply of water to the crop Production/growing of vegetables is done throughout the year Controls pests in crop production Maximizes the utilization of available resources Increases yields and ensure a steady supply of food throughout the year Ensures a steady and reliable source of income and employment

(c) State four pieces of information contained in an invoice.(4 marks)Date of the transaction Type of goods Quantity of goods Price of goods Total amount of money involved Invoice number Terms of payment Name of supplier Signature/stamp of supplier

(d) State five roles of calcium in crop production.(5 marks)Calcium acetate strengthens plant cell wall Calcium is necessary in protein synthesis Promotes soil aggregate formation thus improving soil aeration, water infiltration and retention Calcium compounds when added to acidic soils they raise soil pH Increases cation exchange capacity Makes phosphorus and potassium available for plant uptake. Controls blossom end rot in tomatoes;

26. (a) Describe how sugar cane is harvested.(5 marks)Harvest at the correct age 13 — 22 months for plant crops months for ratoon crop Take sugar cane samples for testing to determine maturity Cut the mature cane at the base/near the ground Cut off the green tops Strip off green leaves/using machete/bum before harvesting Deliver the cane to the factory within 48 hours/ immediately after cutting

(b) Explain four factors that determine the nutrient content of hay.(4 marks)Stage of growth at harvesting time- cut when 50% has flowered Species of the forage crop used- rich in nutrients Duration of storage- long storage lowers the quality Weather conditions during drying- dry and sunny conditions produce high quality hay Length of drying period- rapid drying produces high quality Pest/disease attack on the crop- free from diseases Method of storage- store in a dry place under shade

(c) State seven roles of a farm manager.(7 marks)Short term planning/making quick decisions in order to carry on t e activities in appropriate time and hence avoid a crisis Long term planning/making decisions which are linked to the future plans and operations on the farm Gathering and analyzing information related to the enterprises Detecting weaknesses and constraints and finding ways and means of overcoming them. Keeping farm records or accounts Guiding and supervising the farm management Bearing consequences/responsibility of plans/decisions Making predictions of the likely outcome of possible alternative courses of action Comparing ones enterprise with the set standards

(d) Describe four methods used to reclaim a swampy land for agricultural production. (4 marks)Open ditches — U shaped, V-shaped, trapezoidal ditches are dug for excess water to flow away by gravity Underground drain pipes/perforated pipes are laid underground, excess water then seeps from the surrounding area into the pipes and flows to a water way French drains — ditches are dug, filled with stones and gravel and then covered with soil. Excess water from the surrounding area seeps into these drains and is carried away. Cambered beds — Raised beds are constructed to allow excess water to flow away in furrows. Pumping — is draining excess water from the swampy area using mechanical force. Planting of trees — e.g. Eucalyptus absorbs a lot of water from swampy areas.

27. (a) Describe the production of carrots under the following subheadings:

(i) land preparation (3 marks)land preparation Clear the bush/using a panga/slasher Remove stump Primary cultivation is done using jembe/ploughs Secondary cultivation/harrow to a fine tilth Avoid manure application to prevent forking

(ii) planting (4 marks)Make drills 30cm apart and lcm deep Apply phosphates/DSP/DAP/MAP fertilizer during planting Sow seeds along the drills Cover with top soil Apply fertilizer at the rate of 90kg of DSP/DAP Plant at the onset of rains/when the soil has enough moisture Firm the soil after planting;

(b) Describe six ways in which grass cover helps in soil and water conservation. (6 marks)Grass cover reduces the speed of run off which lowers the erosive power of run off Grass cover reduces/intercepts the impact of rain drops which reduces splash erosion Grass cover protects soil surface hence reducing wind erosion Gross cover holds soil particles together from being carried away by erosive agents The grass improves soil structure Grass cover improve infiltration rate of water Grass cover reduces the rate of evaporation of soil moisture. Grass filters trap soil

(c) Explain seven nursery management practices. (7 marks)Mulching — A light mulch is applied on the nursery bed before seedlings emerge to conserve moisture and control erosion Watering — nursery bed is watered regularly in the morning and evening to ensure adequate water supply. Weed control- weeds are removed through uprooting to minimize competition with the crop Pricking out- overcrowded seedlings are removed and planted in a second nursery bed/seedling bed Shading — A light shade is erected over the nursery bed to protect young seedlings from excess sunlight/ rain drops that damage them. Pest and disease control – controlled through application of appropriate chemical/fungicides Hardening off — is gradual reduction of shade and watering 1 — 2 weeks before transplanting seedlings to acclimatize them to seed bed conditions Root trmming- cut at the tips to encourage lateral root development Application of foliar feed fertilizer to boost growth Removal of mulch after emergence to prevent etiolation