Form Two Notes

St. Luke’s Gospel


Matthew, Mark, Luke and John record the life of Jesus Christ and his ministry in the four Gospel books.

10.0.0 Old Testament Prophesies About the Messiah

11.0.0 The Infancy and Early Life of Jesus

12.0.0 The Galilean Ministry

13.0.0 The Journey to Jerusalem

14.0.0 Jesus’ Ministry in Jerusalem

15.0.0 Jesus’ Passion, Death and Resurrection

Topic One: Old Testament Prophesies About the Messiah Introduction: Read 2 Samuel 7:13, Isaiah 7:10-16


The word Messiah is from a Hebrew word meshiach, which nmeans the anointed: thus a Messiah is one called, anointed and appointed by God to serve Him.


A prophecy refers to a prediction of what will happen in future.

Messianic Prophecies:

These are those predictions that were made by the prophets to describe the coming of a righteous King who will rule Israel according to God’s will.The origin of the Messianic prophecies in the Bible starts with prophet Nathan’s prophecy to King David.


The Roman ruled the Israelites before the birth of Jesus. They hated the Roman leadership and longed for somebody of their own to lead them into victory over the Roman rule.

The prophet of Israel (the Old Testament) communicated a message that God would send a messiah to bring all people into a lasting relationship with Him.

The prophets who were sent had different ideas about the Messiah.

Their ideas about the Messiah were different from the Jewish expectations – whereby they hoped for political King to lead them into victory over the Roman rule.

But the prophets were talking about a religious one – to free them from sin.

Topic Outcomes. By the end of this topic, you should be able to:

a) Explain the Old Testament prophecies about the coming of the Messiah.

b) Relate the concept of the Messiah in the Old and New testaments.

c) Explain the link between the Old and the New Testament.

d) Discuss the role of John the Baptist.

Lesson One. Old Testament Prophesies About the Coming of the Messiah.

Learning Outcomes. By the end of this lesson, you should be able to

describe prophesies of Nathan

Isaiah, Jeremiah, Psalmist prophecy (David) and Micah concerning the Messiah

(i) Nathan’s Prophecy (2 Samuel 7:3 – 17) and (Psalms 89: 20 – 38).

David proposed to build God a house.

Nathan, the prophet was given a message (an oracle) for David.

In this prophecy, God told Nathan to tell King David that:God would ensure that the Kingdom of David would last forever.An heir from David’s lineage would rule.David’s heir shall build a house for God’s name.

God would establish the throne of his Kingdom forever.David heir shall be God’s son and God shall be his father.David house and Kingdom shall be established forever.

David died. But God’s mercy shall not depart from the heir of David.

Hence the promise that the Kingdom of David, shall last forever referred to the messiah who was to come.

David is an ancestor of Christ.

(ii) Isaiah’s Prophecy – Isaiah 7: 10 – 16; 9: 1- 7; 61:1 –2; and 63.

In these readings, Isaiah prophesied that the Messiah would be:Born of a virginA boy, born of a virgin and called ‘Emmanuel’ that is ” God with us”A Wonderful, Counselor, Mighty God, The everlasting Father, and the Prince of Peace.The Spirit of God inside him.Anointed of God.Sent to preach the good news to the poor, to bring liberty to the captives, proclaim the year of favour from God.Isaiah also prophesied that the Messiah would be the suffering servant (Isaiah 53).

Characteristics of the Suffering Servant – Isaiah 53He would bear the sins of human kind.He was oppressed, afflicted, despised, rejected of men.He bore suffering and disgrace submissively.He was mocked and spat on and wounded.He was innocent of sin and yet treated as a criminal.He was pierced and wounded in the sides.He was crucified with thieves and made intercession for the sinners.He was buried in a rich man’s tomb.

iii. Jeremiah’s Prophecy- Jeremiah 23: 5 – 6.

God promised to rise up a (branch) who shall:Choose as King, a righteous descendant of David.Prosper.Rule wisely, do what is right, and just in the world.Execute justice on the earth.Ensure that Judah and Israel are safe and live in peace.Be called ‘the God our righteousness” – “The Lord our salvation’.

What does the term a ‘righteous branch ‘means?

iv. Micah’s Prophesy, (Micah 5: 1 – 5).

Micah prophesied that:The Messianic King shall come from Bethlehem.He shall lead with authority.He will bring peace.

v. The Psalmist Prophecy (Psalm 41:9 and 110:1 –2).

David spoke ofBetrayal by a close friend.Messiah is referred to as ‘ the Lord’.The messiah shall rule/reign in the midst of enemies.


Nathan, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Psalmist prophecy (David) and Micah prophesied of a Messiah to come.

The Jews expected a Messiah who would be a political leader, a victorious ruler and a King. They expected a Messiah:Who would lead his people into a time of great national power and prosperity;In whose reign, there shall be no illness, no sorrow, no injustice,.In whose reign, there shall be no fear.In whose reign, land shall be filled with joy and peaceWho shall rule forever.

Revision questions

1) Describe the prophecy of Jeremiah concerning the Messiah

2) What does the term Messiah mean?

3) Highlight the Jewish expectations of the Messiah in the Old Testament?

4) Did Jesus Christ fulfill the O.T. prophecies concerning the Messiah? How?

5) Which prophets in the Old Testament prophesied about the expected Messiah?

Lesson Two. The Concept of the Messiah in the New Testament

Learning Outcomes. By the end of this lesson, you should be able to

Explain the concept of the Messiah in the New Testament

The concept of messiah is found in Luke 1:26 – 38; 2:1-23; 23:1 – 35; 24:50 – 51.

The writer of Luke’s Gospel makes it clear that Jesus fulfilled the Old Testament prophecies concerning the coming of the Messiah.

How did He do this? Well Jesus fulfilled the Old Testament prophecies because;Jesus was born from the lineage of David (Mathew 1)Angle Gabriel said the child to be born shall rule forever (Luke 1:32)

Nathan’s prophecyJesus was born of Mary a Virgin, as pre told by Isaiah 7:14Messiah is called Emmanuel, Isaiah’s prophecy. Mathew 1:18 – 25Jesus was born in Bethlehem – Micah’s prophecyThe Messiah would be a ‘Son of David’ – Nathan, and Jeremiah prophesies.

Jesus was referred to as a‘Son of David’ (Luke 18:38)Jesus would bring salvation said by Simeon during dedication of Jesus.

Luke 2:29 – 32.

This was a fulfillment of Isaiah’s prophecy.Jesus referred to himself as the Messiah by reading the scroll. Isaiah 61:1 – 2. and Luke 4: 18 – 19Isaiah prophesied that the Messiah would perform miracles. Jesus performed many miracles.The prophecy of the suffering servant (Isaiah 53) was fulfilled through the passion, death and crucifixion of Jesus Christ.We see Jesus betrayed by one of his disciples – friend, fulfilling the Psalmist prophecy.

Note that the Jews in the New Testament expected a messiah who would deliver them from the rule of the Romans.

Jews expected Jesus to be a political leader or king.

However, Peter called him ‘the Christ of God’ (Luke 9:20). Matthew called him King of the Jews in chapter (2 verse 2). Hence, Jesus came as a Spiritual Leader and King, and not as a political Leader / King.

Self-Assessment Questions

1. What does the name Emmanuel mean?

2. Explain the concept of the Messiah in the New Testament?

Lesson Three. Annunciation of the Birth of John the Baptist Introduction

The parents of John the Baptist were Zechariah and his wife Elizabeth. Zechariah’s name meant ‘God has remembered’.

Elizabeth’s name meant ‘God has sworn’. Learning outcome.

By the end of this lesson, you should be able to describe the annunciation of the birth of John the Baptist and Jesus.

John the Baptist

1. The Annunciation – Read – Luke 1:5 – 25.

Zechariah was a priest. He and his wife Elizabeth were old, good and righteous people of God.

But they did not have a child. They were barren. But God gave them a child, John the Baptist.

His birth was announced to his father, Zechariah, when he was in the temple offering incense.

An Angel appeared to Zechariah and told him that his prayers had been heard.

His wife Elizabeth will bear a son.

The angel said the child would be called John, which means that ‘God is gracious’.

The childWill be set aside to serve God.Will be filled with the Holy Spirit As an adult, John.Will be a Nazarite. He should neither cut his hair nor drink wine.Shall turn many hearts of people to the Lord their God.Shall also turn the hearts of the fathers to their children Zachariah expressed unbelief to these words.

Angel Gabriel told him that he shall be dumb until the fulfillment of the God’s words.

The Birth, Circumcision and Naming Of John the Baptist Elizabeth brought forth a son.

This brought great joy to her and Zachariah.

The cousins, and neighbours of Elizabeth wanted the Child to be named Zechariah after the father.

But Elizabeth insisted on the name John.

When Zechariah was asked to name the child, he wrote down the name John.

On the 8th day, the child was named John as the angel had said.

John was circumcised on the 8th day according to the Jewish traditions.

After naming his Child John, the mouth of Zechariah opened immediately and he started to speak.

He sung a song – referred to as Benedictus in Luke 1:67 – 79. As he sung the Benedictus,

Zechariah prophesied that God has:Raised up a horn of salvation on the house of David.Remembered his covenant with Abraham.

Zechariah said this about his Child John:He shall be the prophet of the most high.The child/John shall prepare the way of the lord by.

(i) Calling men to forgiveness.

(ii) Showing men the light of salvation.

(iii) Guiding people into peace.

Lesson Four. The Role of John the Baptist

The role of John the Baptist is found in Isaiah 40: 3 – 5, Malachi 3:1, 4:5 – 6, and Luke 7: 20 – 35. 143

Learning Outcomes. By the end of this lesson, you should be able to

describe the role of John the Baptist in the Gospel.

John the Baptist had an important role to play according to the Angel who announced his coming birth.

His role was to: .Be a Prophet with qualities of Elijah (see Malachi 3:1, 4:5)Announce the good news to come just like Elijah did.Be the link between the Old Testament and New Testament.Prepare the way for the Lord.Announce the coming of God’s reign that was near.Preach a baptism of repentance.Baptize with water.Introduce people, and his disciples to the Messiah – Jesus Christ.Fulfil the Prophecy of Elijah that a messenger was sent before the coming of the Messiah.

John the Baptist was likened to Elijah.

Topic review questions

1. Outline the qualities of John as described by angel Gabriel to Zechariah.

2. Why was John referred to as the second Elijah?

3. What lessons do Christians learn from annunciation of the birth of John the Baptist?

4.describe the birth of John the Baptist.

Topic Two: the Infancy and Early Life of Jesus – Luke 1:26 – 38

Learning Outcomes. By the end of this lesson, you should:

a. Explain events leading to the birth of Jesus

b. Describe the meeting between Mary and Elizabeth

c. Describe the birth of Jesus

d. Explain the dedication of Jesus

e. Describe Jesus at the Temple

a. Angel Gabriel announces the birth of Jesus.

Angel Gabriel said that Mary would conceive and bear a child.

Angel Gabriel called Mary ‘ the highly favoured one’. Mary was an ordinary virgin girl in Galilee engaged to marry Joseph, a descendant of David.

The Angel said that Mary will bear

(i) A Son

(ii) called Jesus (which means God serves.

(iii) The child shall be great

(iv) He shall be called the son of the highest.

(v) He shall be given the throne of his father David

(vi) He shall reign forever

(vii) His kingdom will never end.

Read again and explain what angel Gabriel said concerning the child to be born to Mary?

b. Mary visits Elizabeth. Luke 1:39-56

Angel Gabriel had told Mary that her cousin Elizabeth was also going to have a child.

Mary went to visit her.

The child in Elizabeth’s womb leaped when Mary greeted Elizabeth.

The Holy Spirit revealed to Elizabeth that Mary is the mother of her Lord, the Messiah.

Mary answered Elizabeth by singing the hymn “The Protector” in Psalm 121:3, The Love of God. Psalm 103:17, 98:3.

The Magnificent. In this hymn Mary says:

Her soul magnifies the Lord.

The Lord has regarded the poor and those of low estate.

God’s mercy is on them that fear him from generation to generation.

God humbles the proud and mighty, and exalts those of low estate (the lowly) God has filled the hungry and sent the rich away empty Through the magnificent, Mary, expresses her joy, gratitude and favour given to her and the world.

c. The birth of Jesus Christ. Luke.2: 1 – 20

The birth of Jesus took place in Bethlehem, in Judea, during the reign of Augustus Caesar, a Roman Emperor.

During that time, Rome was conducting a census of the people / citizens for the purpose of collecting taxes.

The census was ordered by the emperor to determine payment of taxes.

The method that Rome was using was counting. Joseph, of the house of David went to his hometown, called Bethlehem; for the census. Jesus was born during this time.

He was wrapped in swaddling clothes and laid in a manger because there was no accommodation in Bethlehem.

The first people to receive the news that a Savior was born were the shepherds.

An angel announced the birth of the Savior, Christ the lord, to the shepherds.

The shepherdswent to Bethlehem and saw the child Jesus. They spread the word concerning what had been told them about the child.

How was the annunciation of the birth of Jesus extraordinary?

d. The dedication of Jesus – Luke..2: 22 – 38

Like John the Baptist, Jesus was circumcised, and named on the 8th day. He was named Jesus which means ‘the savior’ or Yahweh or save’s.

Mary and Joseph observed the Jewish customs according to the Law of Moses.

For her purification and dedication of the child Jesus, Mary brought a pair of turtledoves as an offering.

The fist born males were dedicated to God as Holy.

Simeon took the child up in his arms for dedication and said that:

“The child is set for the fall and rising of many in Israel.

A Sword will pierce Mary’s soul on account of the child.” Prophet Anna also came to the temple and prophesied that the child shall bring deliverance.

e. Jesus at the Temple Luke 2:42 – 52

The parents of Jesus Mary and Joseph, went to Jerusalem every year for the feast of the Passover.

When Jesus was 12, he accompanied them to Jerusalem. After the feast the parents went home without realizing that their child, Jesus was not with them. But while on the way, they realized he was not amongest them.

They returned to Jerusalem, and looked for him for 3 days.

They found him sitting in the temple; listening and asking teachers questions.

All those who were in the temple were astonished by his wisdom and intelligence.

It is in the temple that Jesus is revealed, first as a true son of his people and also as light and salvation for all people. On being questioned by Mary and Joseph, Jesus answered thus:

”Didn’t you know I had to be in my Father’s house, about my Father’s business?” This was an echo of Malachi 3:1 “the Lord whom you seek will suddenly come to his temple”.

Answer these questions

1 Trace occasions when angels appeared to people in the new testament.

2 How did Jesus follow the customs and traditions of the Jewish people?

Answers 1. Occasions when angels appeared to people in the New Testament.

(a) Angel appeared to Zechariah to announce birth of John the Baptist

(b) Angel appeared to Mary to announce the birth of Jesus Christ.

(c) Angels appeared to the shepherds on the night Jesus was born.

(d) Angel appeared to Joseph in a dream warning him to flee to Egypt with the child and Mary.

2. How Jesus followed the customs and traditions of the Jewish people

(i) He was named on the 8th day

(ii) He was circumcised on the 8th day

(iii) His parents took him to the temple for the annual cerebrations of the.


(iv) He went to the synagogue

(v) In his dedication as a first male, his parents offered the sacrifices expected from them.

Topic Review Questions

1. Explain events leading to the birth of Jesus

b. Describe the meeting between Mary and Elizabeth

c. Describe the birth of Jesus

d. Explain the dedication of Jesus

e. Describe Jesus at the Temple

Topic Three. The Galilean Ministry – Luke 3-8

John the Baptist and Jesus Christ

Learning Outcomes. By the end of this topic, you should:

a) Explain the teachings of John the Baptist.

b) Describe the baptism and temptation of Jesus and its relevance to Christians today.

c) Give reasons as to why Jesus was rejected at Nazareth.

d) Describe the first miracles of Jesus at Capernaum.

Lesson One. The Preaching of John the Baptist (Luke3: 1 – 20)

John the Baptist preached about

a. Baptism of repentance for the forgiveness of sins. Baptism means to dip in water’. Repentance means‘change of heart/mind, turning around.

Baptism was a symbol of repentance, which means a total change heart/mind, a confession of sins).

Baptism of water was a preparation of the baptism of fire and Holy Spirit by Jesus.

b. He warned people of God’s coming Judgment.

The religious leaders stressed outward observance of the law rather than inner righteousness. John the Baptist told them to bear fruits worthy of repentance.

He told them to live righteous lives and not as hypocrites (brood of vipers).

Religious leaders also assumed that since they were descendants of Abraham, God would not punish them.

He warned them that God could raise descendants of Abraham from stones.

c) He announced the coming of the Messiah as Judge. John the Baptist became famous that some thought he is the promised messiah.

He however pointed to a messiah who will not baptize with water but with the Holy Ghost and fire (Jesus Christ).

d) He preached on social justice. He taught, emphasized, advised:That those who have should share with those who do not have.The need for fairness and honesty for example tax collectors not to collect more than what was required.That soldiers should not to abuse their power by accusing others falsely, robbing. They were told to be content with their wages.

e). He condemned King Herod’s immoral behaviour. King Herod had married Herodians – his own brother’s wife. Herod imprisoned John the Baptist and this led to his death (Luke 3 v.22).

What does the term social justice mean?

Find the answer in (d).

Summary of the teachings of John the BaptistHe taught on repentance and forgiveness of sins.He warned people of God’s coming judgment.He announced the coming of the messiah who would be judge.He preached on social justice. Those who have should share with the poor.He emphasized the need for fairness and honesty.He warned against abuse of power by those in power and authority.He condemned taking of bribes, corruption and over taxation.He condemned sexual immorality (adultery).

Relevance of the teachings of John the Baptist to Christians today The teachings challenge Christians to be fair, honest, and just in their dealings with other people.

Christians should avoid being hypocritical to one another.

Christians need to know that God will judge them for their wrongdoing. Hence Christian should repent their sins sincerely and seek forgiveness.

Christians should warn non-believers of the coming judgment.

They should preach against evils without fear; and avoid corruption, and sexual immorality.

Christians should live together in harmony.

Baptism was important to Christians.

Group Activity. Read Luke and find out how John the Baptist was killed, why and by whom

Lesson Two. The Baptism of Jesus and Its Relevance Today

Learning Outcomes. By the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

a. Describe the baptism of Jesus Christ.

b. Give reasons why Jesus was baptized.

c. State relevance or the importance of the baptism of Jesus to Christians.

a. The baptism of Jesus Christ (Luke 3: 21 – 22)

When Jesus was around 30 years of age, He went to be baptized by John the Baptist.

Jesus was the last to be baptized.

Although he did not need to repent as He did not sin ; He nevertheless was baptized even though He was without sin.

When he was baptized, the heaven opened and the Holy Ghost descended on Him in the form of a dove.

At the same time, a voice from heaven said, “This is my beloved son, in whom I am well pleased”.

b. Reasons why Jesus was baptized. He was baptized because:

a. Jesus wanted to show his approval of John’s Ministry of baptism.

b. Jesus accepted the work of redemption of human kind to be completed through suffering and death.

c. Jesus identified himself with the sinful humankind who needed redemption through baptism.

d. Jesus carried all the sins of humankind (baptized last).

e. He wanted to carry sins of people/humankind upon himself in order to bring about reconciliation between people and God.

f. God can confirm to the people that Jesus Christ was the messiah (Psalms 2:7).

g. It was an act of preparing those who were ready to receive the Messiah.

h. Baptism was a way of fulfilling the Old Testament prophecy.

c. Relevance or the Importance of the baptism of Jesus to Christians.

1) Christians practice baptism. They follow example of Jesus baptism.

There are many forms of baptism

such as full immersion in water, sprinkling of water on the forehead, partial immersion (head only) and passing under a flag.

2) Christians teach importance of baptism. It qualifies a new convert to become a member of Christian fellowship.

3) Through baptism, Christians receive the power of the Holy Ghost.

4) Through baptism, Christians identify themselves with Jesus Christ and all that he stands for.

5) Baptism unites Christians in the body of Christ.

6) Baptism is a symbol of death and resurrection. In some denominations, the baptized are given new names of other Christians and Jews.

7) Baptism signifies the forgiveness of sins.

Through baptism one is considered a child of God.

9) Baptism is a form of preparation for the kingdom of God.

10) Baptism is a sign of Christ’s forgiveness of sins.

Lesson Revision questions

a. What is the relevance of john the Baptist teaching to Christians today?

b. Give reasons why Jesus accepted to be baptized

c. Describe the baptism of Jesus

d. What is the significance of the baptism of Jesus to Christians today

Lesson Three. Temptations of Jesus: Relevance to Christians Today Learning Outcomes. By the end of the lesson, you should

a. Narrate temptations of Jesus.

b. State relevance of the temptations of Jesus to modern Christians.

c. State lessons that Christians can learn from temptations of Jesus.

a. The temptations of Jesus (Luke 4:1 – 13). Jesus, full of the Holy Spirit returned from Jordan into the desert. Like Elijah, Moses, He ate and drunk nothing for 40 days and nights.

He was hungry after 40 days.

It is at this time of weakness when the devil tempted Him.

First temptation.

The devil told Jesus to proof that He was the Son of God by turning the stones to become bread.

Jesus however replied that it is written man does not live on bread alone to sustain him but on everything that the Lord says (Deut 8:3).

Satan was telling Jesus to use his Messianic power and Spirit to obtain material security for himself and his followers for selfish, materialistic purposes.

What can we learn from this temptation? Jesus was not seeking to establish a material paradise on earth.

Second temptation.

The devil led Jesus up to a high place (High Mountain) and showed Him in an instant all the Kingdoms of the world.

He told Him that he would give Him all their authority and splendor, if He bows and worships Satan.

Jesus replied… it is written worship the Lord your God and serve him only.

Do not worship other gods (Deut.6: 13-14).

Satan wanted Jesus to use Godly power and influence.

This was idolatry i.e. worshipping other gods.

What can we learn from this temptation?

Jesus did not come to seek a worldwide political military reign as many Jews expected Him to do.

Third Temptation.

The Devil led Jesus to Jerusalem and had Him stand on the highest point of the temple.

He told Jesus to throw Himself down if He was the Son of God for it is written that the Lord will command angels to guard him (Psalm 91:11 – 12). Jesus replied and said it is written, do not put the Lord your God to the test.

Satan wanted Jesus to presume on God’s good care by jumping from the roof of the temple.

What can we learn from this temptation? Jesus will not force belief in His Messiah ship through a spectacular sign.

Notice that the temptations came after Jesus’ Baptism, where he had solemnly accepted the opening of his public ministry and God confirmed it.

Therefore the temptations were a testing of his loyalty to God’s chosen way of life.

b. Relevance of Jesus temptations to Christians.

Jesus, though without sin was tempted.

His followers must expect to be tested in their faith.

Christians learn that it is not sinful to be tempted.

Since Jesus was tempted, he understands Christian’s difficulties when they are tempted.

Jesus is always ready to help Christians to cope with temptations.

Why do you think Christians are tempted?

Through temptations and trials, Christian’s faith in God is strengthened. Christians learn to refer to the Bible for guidance when tempted.

Jesus said that it is written… in reference to scripture.

Christians should seek the Holy Spirit to give them strength to fight any form of trials and temptations.

Jesus, full of the Holy Spirit went to the wilderness and was tempted by the devil……………” In temptation, God does provide a way out.

Thus followers of Jesus Christ (Christians) should not be seekers of spectacular signs.

Lesson Four. Rejection of Jesus at Nazareth Learning Outcomes.

By the end of the lesson, you should

a. Describe rejection of Jesus at Nazareth

b. Suggest possible reasons for rejection

a. Rejection of Jesus at Nazareth (Luke 4:14 – 30).

After the temptation, Jesus went to Galilee, His home district to begin his ministry.

As a faithful Israelite,Jesus attended service in the synagogue every Sabbath day.

During that time, it was customary for visiting Rabbis (Teachers of the law) to be given the honor of reading from the law or to address the congregation.

When Jesus was given this opportunity, He opened the scroll and read from Isaiah 61: 1 – 3 …’The Sovereign Lord has filled me with his spirit.

He has chosen me and sent me.’

Luke writes in 4 18 “ The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, because he has chosen me to bring good news to the poor”.

On completion of the reading, Jesus told them that today this scripture has been fulfilled in their hearing.

From this reading Jesus referred to himself as the Messiah.

The people of Nazareth in indignation wanted to kill Jesus by throwing him over a cliff.

b. Possible Reasons for Rejection.

Jews of Nazareth rejected Jesus because one, they knew him as the son of Mary and Joseph. They did not know Him as the Son of God.

Two, Jesus did not fit into the idea of a political King that the Jews were expecting.

They were waiting for a King with an army and horses.

Three, Jesus preaching was seen as being against that of Pharisees,Scribes and Sadducees: the religious leaders at that time.

Four, Jesus pointed out evils of religious leaders. Five, a leader is never accepted at home especially in a superior or senior position.

Six, Jesus did not follow the general rules of the Mosaic Law.

These were fasting, healing and working on the Sabbath day.

Worse still Jesus associated Himself with Jewish outcasts such as sinners, and the sick.

Discussion question 1. What are the possible reasons for rejection of Jesus at Nazareth?


(i) He was known by people as son of Mary and Joseph.

(ii) He did not fit in the idea of a political king that Jews were expecting.

(iii) Often times one is not accepted at home and at a senior position.

(iv) He did not follow the general rules of the law of Moses.

(v) He associated with sinners, and outcasts.

Lesson Five. Healing at Capernaum

Learning Outcomes. By the end of this lesson:

a. Describe Jesus’ healing at Capernaum

b. Explain healing of a man possessed with an evil spirit

c. Describe Jesus healing of Simon’s mother – in law

a. Jesus’ healing at Capernaum LK. 4:31 – 44

After his rejection in Nazareth and an attempt to throw him down a hill, Jesus went on to Capernaum.

Here he cast out demons (Luke 4: 40 – 41).

He was teaching people. He performed many miracles of healing. For example:

i. Healing a man possessed by an evil spirit.

A man was possessed by an unclean demon/spirit.

He was in the synagogue.

When he saw Jesus, the evil spirit shouted, “Ah! What do you want with us, Jesus of Nazareth? Have you come to destroy us? I know who you are, the Holy one of God” (Luke 4:34). Jesus replied, “Be silent and come out of him.” The Demon threw the man down and came out without doing any harm.

The man was made whole.

ii. Jesus heals Simon’s mother – in law. After Jesus left the synagogue, he went to the house of Simon.

Peter’s mother in law. She had a fever, Jesus commanded the fever to leave and she was made whole immediately.

Which lessons do Christians learn from the healings at Capernaum There are many lessons. These are that

1) Jesus is the son of God.

2) Jesus came to establish the Kingdom of God and destroy the kingdom of Satan.

3) Jesus has power over evil spirits / demons.

4) Jesus came to save human beings from the slavery of sin.

5) God cares for his people.

Lesson Six. The Calling of the First Disciples Luke 5: 1 – 11


A disciple is a learner, a student or a follower. Learners followed a master so as to learn about religious matters.

Disciples were followers of Christ.

Learning Outcomes. By the end of the lesson, you should be able to

describe the call of the first disciples.

Rabbis. These were teachers of law. They had special schools where they taught law.

In these schools,learning was by memorization and repetition what students heard from the rabbis.

The disciples of Jesus did not memorize. They learnt by observation. They were witnesses – and they spoke what they heard and described or explained what they saw.

Call of the first disciples

Jesus entered into Simon’s ship and started to teach people who were there. Later, He told Simon to “push off a little from the shore”. Jesus sat in the boat and taught the crowd.

After speaking, he told Simon, and his partners James and John; “Push the boat out further to the deep water…and let down your nets for a catch of fish”.

Simon told Jesus that they had toiled all night, and caught nothing.

But if you say so, I will let down the nets. Simon obeyed.

They let down the nets and caught a multitude of fish.

They called for assistance from other fishermen. When Simon Peter saw this, he told Jesus “Go away from me, Lord! I am a sinful man!” Jesus said to Simon “Don’t be afraid, from now on you will be catching people”.

On getting to the shore, Peter and his friends James and John sons of Zebedee forsook all and followed Jesus Thus the first disciples of Jesus were Simon Peter; James and John.

Lessons from the call of the first disciples

1) God can choose anybody to serve him regardless of his or her social status.

2) God still calls people to serve him in various capacities as evangelists, pastors and others.

3) Those called should repent their sins as Peter did.

4) Christians should trust in God – Simon Peter trusted Jesus and cast his nets even though they had.

caught no fish from the same spot.

5) God can intervene in people’s lives through miracles (miraculous catch of fish).

6) Christians should work together as a team. Fishermen worked together.

7) There is hope for those who follow Jesus. He told them ‘follow me and I will make you fishers of men’.

God reveals himself to people in everyday activities as Jesus revealed himself to Simon Peter, and his friends James and John through fishing.

9) Christian’s vocation may require renunciation of family ties and occupations or a change of life.

10) Those called to serve God are expected to be humble

Lesson Seven. Opposition in Galilee

Learning Outcomes. By the end of the lesson, you should

a. Describe the Pharisees? Scribes? Sadducees.

b. Identify the differences between the Pharisees and the Sadducees.

c. Explain why Jesus faced opposition from Pharisees, Sadducees, and Scribes.

Jesus ministry consisted of teaching, healing and doing many miracles. Because of this work, Jesus faced opposition from the Pharisees, Sadducees and Scribes. These were Jewish religious leaders.

a. Opposition by Pharisees and Sadducees. Luke 5:12- 6:11

Why did Jewish religious leaders; the Pharisees? Scribes? Sadducees oppose Jesus?

There were many reasons for Jewish opposition to Jesus.

These were:

1) Jesus was becoming more famous than the religious leaders.

2) His claim to forgive sins. This was reserved only for God.

3) His association with tax collectors / publicans and sinners.

For example, Jesus ate with Levi.

4) His failure to observe the law of fasting.

Jesus disciples did not fast like the disciples of the Pharisees and John the Baptist.

5) Doing what religious leaders regarded as unlawful things on the Sabbath day. For example, a. Eating on Sabbath with unwashed hands (disciples).

b. Plucking corn on the Sabbath day.

c. Working. Jesus healed on the Sabbath day.

This was considered as work, which was unlawful.

Jesus healed a man with a paralyzed hand on the Sabbath day.

d. Touching the unclean. Jesus reached out his hand and touched a leper and healed him.

Religious leaders were not allowed to touch the unclean lepers.

e. Associating with tax collectors who were regarded as sinners because they were corrupt.

They collected more tax than the required amount. Jesus was supposed not to associate with them or support them in any way.

Who were the Pharisees? These wereReferred to as the ‘separated ones’.Religious leaders who expected people to respect and honour them.Pious leaders and wanted everybody to recognize them.Rich Jews and looked at their riches as blessings from God.Called ones and thought of themselves as the ‘righteous’ ones.Popular to the poor who respected them.

Characteristics of Pharisees

a. They believed in the Law of Moses and accepted the first five books of the Bible as God inspired.

They insisted on strict observance of the law.

b. They upheld and insisted on the observance of the oral traditions of the elders.

c. They followed strictly 632 distinct rules and regulations broken down from the ten commandments.

d. They believed in the teachings of the prophets and other writings of the Old Testament.

e. They passed religious traditions of the Jews from generation to generation and regarded this as a duty or obligation.

f. They believed in the existence of angels and regarded them as intermediaries between God and human beings.

g. They believed in the existence of demons and Satan.

h. They believed in and waited for the Messiah of God to come.

i. The believed in the resurrection of the dead.

j. The believed in the judgment of God at the end of time for all human kind.

k. They were strong nationalists and political leaders who resisted all foreign influences and power.

Who were the Scribes?

The word Scribe means ‘a writer. The work of a scribe was to rewrite by hand – new manuscripts of the Jewish scriptures. The copied the word exactly as it was. The scribes were either Pharisees or Sadducees.

At the time of Jesus, majority of the Scribes were associated with the Pharisees. A scribe was also a ‘Rabbi’ – teacher. Some scribes managed schools called ‘Rabbinical Schools’.

In these schools, Jewish male youth learnt the Mosaic Law from the age of 13 years.

Scribes were represented in the Jewish religious council called the Sanhedrin. Sanhedrin was the Jewish Court of Justice, which tried those who committed religious sins.

Who were the Sadducees?

Sadducees were the wealthy people.

They were an influential group. These were the majority in the Sanhedrin, the Jewish Court of Justice. The poor hated them. They were also members of the Jerusalem priesthood. The chief priests were mainly drawn from the Sadducees.

They believed in the divine authority of the Law of Moses and the Pentateuch’s first five Books of the bible.

They believed that Moses wrote the first 5 books of the Bible.

They regarded all the other books in the Old Testament as not divinely inspired. Hence they rejected them.

They rejected and did not believe in

(a) The resurrection of the dead

(b) Last judgment

(c) Coming of the Messiah

(d) Angels and demons and

(e) the oral traditions of the Pharisees.

They were enemies of the Pharisees particularly because of religious matters. However, they joined with the Pharisees and Scribes to oppose Jesus Christ.

Lesson Eight. The Sermon on the Plain (Luke. 6:12–16, 27– 49)

Review In the previous section, we learnt that Jesus chose His apostles. He came down the hill and stood on a level place.

He gave a sermon to those present.

This address is referred to as the sermon on the plain in Luke’s Gospel.

The people had come to hear Jesus’ word to receive healing and for Jesus to exercise unclean spirits from them.

In the sermon, Jesus talked of the characteristics of the new community.

All those who would listen to His word would be the “New Israel”.

Learning Outcomes. By the end of the lesson, you should be able to

(a) Name the12 disciples.

(b) Summarize the teachings of Jesus on true discipleship.

© Analyse the teachings of Jesus on the plain (sermon on the plain).

Selection of 12 disciples (Luke. 6:12 – 16)

Jesus went into a mountain to pray. In the morning, he called his disciples.

From them, he selected 12 disciples, whom he also called apostles. Apostle means one who is sent, a missionary.

The 12 disciples were:

(1) Simon Peter

(2) Andrew

(3) James

(4) John

(5) Phillip

(6) Bartholomew

(7) Mathew (Levi)

(8) Thomas

(9) James son of Alphaeus

(10) Simon who was called the Patriot

(11) Judas son of James and

(12) Judas Iscariot who became the traitor (Luke vs. 14-16)

Jesus teachings’ on true discipleship Jesus taught that a follower or disciple of Christ should:

(a) Have unshakeable faith.

(b) Be obedient to God’s word.

(c) Be self-critical/analytical/self-searching.

(d) Be kind, loyal, objective, fair, and generous.

(e) Accept others without discrimination.

(f) Be a disciple and show concern for others.

The Sermon on the plain (Luke 6: 17 – 49)

The Sermon on the plain is a lecture or lesson that Jesus gave to “ a large number of his disciples and a large crowd of people who had come from Judea, Jerusalem, tyre, and Sidon.

They came to listen to the sermon of Jesus and to be healed of diseases, evil sprits.

The purpose of the sermon was to teach the crowd the meaning of following Christ.

Jesus covered 6 beatitudes or topics in his sermon. These are.

1) Blessings and woes – beatitudes

(2) Love for enemies

(3) Judging others

(4) Giving to the needy

(5) A tree and its fruits

(6) Wise and foolish builders – hearing and doing the words of Jesus.

We shall now discuss each of these beatitudes in detail.

1. Blessings and woes. Jesus taught that:

(i) Blessed are the poor for theirs is the Kingdom of God.

(ii) Blessed are the hungry for they shall be filled.

(iii) Blessed are those who weep now for they shall laugh.

(iv) Blessed are those who men shall hate, reject, reproach for the sake of Christ’s for their great reward is kept in heaven.

(v) Woe to those who are rich, for they have already received their reward.

(vi) Woe to those who are full for they shall go hungry.

(vii) Woe to those who laugh now for they shall mourn and weep.

(viii) Woe to those whom people speak well, for ancestors said the same about the false prophets.

Those who accept to be followers of Christ are promised blessings while those who reject Christ are to suffer in future.

2. Love your enemies. Luke. 6: 27 – 36.

Love is often defined as a warm feeling / affection towards somebody or something.

Jesus taught his followers to love their enemies and do well to those who hate you.

Bless those who curse you. Pray for those who mistreat you.

Do unto men as you expect them to do unto you.

Lend also to your enemies.

Love your enemies and do good to them. Lend and expect nothing back.

Be merciful.

From these teachings: true discipleship of Jesus Christ:

a) Entails unconditional love even for enemies.

b) Doing good without expecting any returns.

c) Praying for those who mistreat us.

d) Showing love to our enemies by exhibiting God’s love in us.

e) Is love; because those who love are children of the most high who is kind and merciful to the sinners.

(3) Judging others Luke. 6: 37– 42

Jesus taught his followers not to judge others lest they are also judged. They should not condemn others lest they are also condemned. He asked disciples to forgive others and they shall also be forgiven.

True discipleship requires acknowledging one’s shortcomings and avoiding criticism of others.

(4) Giving to the needy.

A true disciple should share what they have with the needy. Those who share shall be rewarded.

He also said that the blind couldn’t lead the blind. There is a master and a follower.

The disciple is not above his master.

(5) A tree and its fruits.

A healthy tree bears good fruits. A poor tree bears poor fruit. Neither does a corrupt tree bring forth good fruits.

A tree is known by its fruits. Followers of Christ are evident to others by their actions.

They are not hypocritical or fault finding.

(6) Wise and foolish builders.

A wise builder digs a deep foundation on a rock. When floods come, the house is able to stand.

A foolish builder builds his house upon the sand. Without a foundation, when floods come, the house falls and is ruined.

Wise builders are those who hear the word of God and do what is required.

Those who do not adhere to the teachings are the unwise builders.

True discipleship entails obedience to the teachings of Jesus Christ.

Relevance of the lessons of the Sermon on the Plain to Christian Life

Christians are urged to love even those that hate them. The challenges that followers of Christ.

encountered in the New Testament are not different from those that Christians experience today.

Christians should forgive others, share with the needy, avoid judging others, and follow the teachings of Christ.

Lesson Revision questions

1. Give the main teaching of Jesus on the sermon on the plain

2. What is the relevance of the (beatitudes) sermon on the plain to Christians today?

Lesson Nine. Jesus’ Works of Compassion

In this lesson, Jesus’ works of compassion is discussed.

These include the works of mercy for those in distress and pity for the suffering.

Jesus’ mission lays its foundation in these works of compassion, because He came to establish the kingdom of God by conquering all forms of suffering caused by Satan.

Compassion is a feeling of empathy for other people’s sufferings. It’s being merciful, showing concern and affection for others.

Learning Outcomes. By the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

a) Give examples of Jesus works of compassion

b) Narrate Jesus works of compassion

c) Give reasons why Jesus used parables

d) Identify categories of the miracles of Jesus

e) Give lessons learnt from each example in each category

a. Examples of Jesus works of compassion. There are many examples of compassion

i) Healing of the centurion’s servant (Luke 7:1 – 10)

Centurion is an officer in charge of 100 men. Jesus healed the servant of a Roman soldier and a Gentile.

The Centurion showed love and concern for his servant. The centurion sent Jewish elders to Jesus with a request to heal his servant.

The leaders said ‘this man deserves to have you do this, because he loves our nation and has built our synagogue’ (Luke 7:5). Jesus agreed and went with the elders.

But before Jesus reached the centurion’s house, the centurion sent his friends to stop him from coming to his house.

He said that he was not worthy to have Jesus under his roof. He said that he was a man of authority. Hence Jesus could give an order and the servant would be healed.

On hearing this, Jesus declared to the crowd ‘ I tell you, I have not found such great faith even in Israel’.

When the men returned, they found the servant well.

Lessons Christians can learn from the healing of the centurion servant.

1. Faith in God is important for healing to occur.

2. We should confess our faith in Jesus. The centurion declared his faith in Jesus by saying he believed.

that Jesus could heal his servant by his word.

3. Christians should have compassion like Jesus. He took compassion on the servant and was ready to go and heal him.

4. Salvation was not for Jews alone, but for all who believed in Jesus.

Centurion was not a Jew but a gentile officer in the Roman army. But he had faith in Jesus healing.

5. Christians should love each other regardless of their background or social status – the centurion loved his servant dearly.

6. Christians should learn to relate well with all around them – the centurion related well with the Jewish elders and others.

7. Jesus has power to heal any form of sickness.

ii) The raising of the widows son – Luke 7:11 – 17.

A widow is a woman whose husband is dead.

The widow was of the city of Nain.

When Jesus neared the gates of the city, he saw the funeral procession of the widow’s son, the only son of his mother. Jesus had compassion on the widow and told her ‘ weep not’.

Jesus then touched the casket and said ‘young man I say unto you, arise’.

The dead sat up and began to speak.

All the people were filled with fear and glorified God, saying God has visited his people.

Lessons Christians learn from the raising of the widow’s son

1) Jesus has power over death

2) Jesus empathizes with the suffering

3) Acts of love should not be hindered by traditions – Jesus touched the casket even though Jewish traditions forbid it.

4) The Widow of Nain was a gentile. This is a sign that salvation was universal.

5) The crowd acknowledged Jesus’ lordship; Christians should acknowledge the lordship of Jesus.

What are the practices pertaining to the disposal of the dead in your culture? and community?

iii) Assurance to John the Baptist (Luke 7:20 – 30).

A question arose whether Jesus Christ was the Messiah. John the Baptist wanted to assure his disciples that Christ; was the expected messiah: and not him (John the Baptist).

He sent his disciples to Jesus to ask “if you are the one he said was going to come, or if we should expect someone else?” (Vs. 20).

Jesus told the disciples of John to go back and tell John of the miracles works they saw and heard.

Jesus then gave a testimony of John the Baptist as a prophet, whose life and missions is beyond that of ordinary prophets.

Jesus testified that John the Baptist; was the forerunner or messenger of Jesus Christ: as the prophets in the Old Testament had written.

The Pharisees and the publicans (teaches of the law) however rejected the testimony about John the Baptist. They had refused to be baptized by John.

Those baptized by John the Baptist, the tax collectors acknowledged the testimony of Jesus. Jesus rebuked the Pharisees and teachers of law for their hypocrisy.

In what ways were the Pharisees and teaches of law hypocritical?

iv) The forgiveness of the sinful woman (Luke 7: 36 – 50)

Jesus was invited by one of the Pharisees called Simon to his house to dine with him. In that city, there was a sinful woman. She went to the house of Simon when she learnt that Jesus was in the Pharisees house.

She brought with her an alabaster jar full of perfume.

She stood behind Jesus. She was weeping and washing his feet with her fears. She then wiped the tears from the feet of Jesus with her hair, kissed his feet, and anointed them with oil (an alabaster box of ointment).

When Simon, the host saw this he said within himself, ‘if this man was a prophet, he would know who this woman is who is touching him” a sinful woman. Jesus told Simon a parable of a man who forgave two people that owed him money – one 500, the other 50. Jesus asked which of the two debtors would love him most.

Simon said the one that was forgiven much, Jesus then told Simon that when he came to his house, Simon did not give him water for his feet; neither did he welcome Jesus with a kiss; nor provide him with olive oil.

But the woman washed his feet with her tears, and wiped them with her hair.

She also kissed his feet.

Jesus told the people that her sins, being many are forgiven for she loved much. Jesus turned to the woman and told her ‘thy sins are forgiven’.

‘Thy faith has saved thee, go in peace’.

The people who were eating with Jesus murmured. Who was Jesus? He forgives sins.

Lessons from the forgiveness of the sinful woman

1. The Jews believed that by associating with sinners, one becomes virtually defiled. Jesus however allowed the sinful woman to touch him.

2. By her actions, the woman acknowledged that she was a sinner, and repented. This was in contrast to the Pharisees who were self-righteous and therefore did not repent.

3. The Woman’s great love for Jesus led to her being forgiven of her sins.

4. Christians need to accept their sinful nature and seek forgiveness from God.

5. Faith in Jesus is necessary.


Jesus is accepted women to be his followers unlike the Jewish customs which viewed women as lesser than men.

Other women that played a key role in the ministry of Jesus include Mary Magdalene, Joann Joanna and Susanna among many others.

Lesson Revision questions 1. What role do women play in the church ministry?

2. Narrate the story of the forgiveness of the sinful woman (Lk 7: 36, 8:3)

3. What lessons do you learn from the above story?

4. Describe the story of the raising of the widow’s son at Nain (Lk 7: 11- 17)


Women play many roles in the church ministry. Some of these are:

(i) Carrying out duties of pastors, bishops, and deacons

(ii) Management. Some are heads of the women groups

(iii) Leading in church service

(iv) Participating as church ushers, choir singers, and youth leaders

(v) Attending church. Women are part of the congregations

Lesson Ten. Jesus Teaching in Parables (Lk. 8: 4- 21)


Jesus used parables to teach. A parable is a Greek word. It means comparing or ‘putting side by side’ in order to understand.

A parable is defined as a short story or description, which teaches something or answers some questions.

It is an allegory – an earthly story with a hidden or heavenly meaning.

a. Use of parables.

Jesus used parables in his teachings in order to explain unfamiliar messages in a language that his hearers could understand.

Other reasons were because Jesus wanted to:

1) Provoke critical thinking

2) Make the audience understand issues from a different point of view

3) Explain the nature of the kingdom of God by giving real life examples.

4) Explain the nature of God. The parables brought out the attributes of an invisible God. For example, the parable of the prodigal son who had been lost.

5) Attract the attention of his audiences so that they could listen and understand.

6) Make people understand how they should relate to one another. Read the parable of the good Samaritan.

7) Teach God’s love to mankind. The parable of the lost sheep, lost coin. Separate / identify those who were sincere in seeking the kingdom of God from the onlookers.

9) Challenge the imagination of his hearers since entry to God’s kingdom was a personal decision.

10) Make an indirect attack on his opponents like the Pharisees, the scribes and the Sadducees.

11) Teach his disciples that they should be persistent and never be discouraged.

12) Make his teachings interesting and easy to understand.

1. The parable of the sower Lk 8:4 – 15

Jesus told this parable to the crowd that followed him. He said that a farmer went out to sow corn.

He scattered seeds in the field. As he did so, some of them fell on the path, and they were trampled on and eaten by birds. Other seeds fell on the rock ground. When they germinated, they withered because they lacked moisture.

Some seed fell among thorns bushes.

They grew with bushes, which choked them as they grew.

Some other seeds fell on fertile soil.

They grew up in fertile soil and their yield was100 seed for each seed sown.

Meaning or interpretation of the parable

Jesus gave the meaning of the parable to his disciples.

He said that the seed is the word of God.

i. Seed that fell on the path represents people who hear the word of God, and then the devil comes and takes away the word from their hearts so that they do not believe.

Such listeners are like the seeds that fell on the path.

They hear the word but soon after the devil takes away the message to stop them from believing and being saved.

ii. Seed that fell on the rocky ground are people who receive the word with joy but it does not stay with them.

They believe for a while but when faced with trials and temptations they stop believing and fall away.

iii. Seed that fell on the thorny bushes stands for people who receive the word.

However, they fail to follow their beliefs because of interference by life’s worries, riches and pressures of the world.

They fail to mature as believers. iv. Seed that fell on the good soil are those people with a noble and good heart.

They hear the word, and retain it in their hearts. Such people persevere and produce good harvest.

v. Interpretation. The different types of soil in this parable refer to different kinds of Hearts of people.

The farmer is Jesus, God or Preacher. We learn that:One should not despair andIt’s important to receive the word of God, practice it and persevere so as to bear fruits.

2. The parable of a lamp under a bowl (Lk.8: 16 – 18).

Jesus taught that no one lights a lamp, then covers it with a bowl or hide it under a bed. When one lights a lamp, they put it on the lamp stand so as to illuminate a room and for people to see the light. For whatever is hidden or covered up shall be revealed.

In this parable Jesus is the light.

The disciples had a duty to pass on to others messages they had learnt from Jesus.

They should not keep messages to themselves.


From this parable of a lamp under a bowl, we learn that:

i A Christian has a duty to share the knowledge of God with others.

ii One cannot be a Christian if this knowledge is hidden.

iii Those who do not share may loose their beliefs.

3. Jesus mother and brothers. Luke 8:19 – 21

The mother of Jesus and brothers came to see him. Someone told Jesus that they were there.

He told the crowd. “My mother and brothers are those who hear the word of God and obey “.

Accepters and believers are the members of the family of Jesus.

Lesson Revision Questions

1. Give reasons why Jesus used parables.

2. Identify various methods used by Christians in spreading the gospel today.

3. Discuss the reasons why Jesus faced opposition fro the Jewish leaders.

Lesson Eleven: Mighty Works of Jesus

Learning outcomes. By the end of this lesson

a. Organise in categories miracles performed by Jesus.

b. Narrate each miracle.

c. Discuss the significance of the miracle and lessons to learn.

Jesus continued to do miracles; and teach. His work is referred to as the mighty works of Jesus in various books.

Miracles can be defined as acts of power whose purpose is to establish the kingdom of God.

Miracles can also mean extraordinary events that go against the laws of nature.

a. Categories / types of miracles

Jesus performed four types of miracles. These were:

1) Nature miracles – miracles that dealt with nature e.g. calming of the storm.

2) Raising of the dead e.g. Jairus daughter.

3) Healing miracles – healing Simon’s mother in law of fever, healing of the woman with the flow of blood.

4) Exorcism miracles – casting out of evil spirits e.g. the Gerasene demonic.

i) The calming of the storm.

One day, Jesus entered a boat with his disciples to go across Lake Galilee.

As they sailed Jesus was asleep in the ship.

Suddenly, there was a strong wind and the boat began to sink.

The disciples woke him up saying, “ Master, we are about to die”.

Jesus woke up and gave an order to the winds and the raging waters.

They obeyed and there was calm.

He then said to his disciples ‘where is your faith?’ Disciples were afraid and amazed and wondered, “Who is this man?” Winds and waves obey him.

This miracle teaches Christians to have faith and to depend on Jesus when they face raging temptations and persecutions. Jesus has power over nature.

ii) Jesus Heals a Man with demons (Lk8: 26 – 39)

Jesus and his disciples sailed to Gerasa town across Lake Galilee. On arrival a man who had demons in him for a long time met Jesus.

He lived naked in tombs, and wilderness.

On seeing Jesus, he cried out, threw himself down at the feet of Jesus and shouted; “Jesus son of the Most High God! What do you want with me?” ” I beseech thee, torment me not’. Jesus had ordered the demons to go out of him.

Jesus asked him “what is your name?” He replied Legion or Mob.

This was because the man had been possessed by many demons.

The demons begged Jesus not to send them into the deep but to let them go into some pigs (swine) that were feeding by.

Jesus allowed them and the devils went out of the man, into the pigs.

The herd ran down the cliff into the lake and drowned.

The herders run to the city and spread the news.

The multitude found the man sitting at the feet of Jesus clothed, and in his right mind.

The multitude asked Jesus to leave their country region.

The healed man wanted to follow Jesus but Jesus declined and told him to go and tell others of the great things that God had done for him.

The man went to town and told all “what Jesus had done for him”.

This miracle teaches Christians that:

1. The mission of Jesus’ was universal.

2. Jesus mission is to teach all the people irrespective of their race, tribe or geographical location.

The demon man was healed in a Gentile area. 3. Jesus has power over evil

4. Powers of evil (demons) are real

5. Human life is more valuable than man’s material things

6. The demons – evil spirits identified Jesus as the Son of the most High

7. Christians need to fight the power of evil

SAQ. What were the causes of mental illness and spirit possession in traditional African society and in modern society?

iii) Jairus daughter is raised. Lk.8: 40 – 42, 49 – 56

Jairus was an official in the local synagogue. He begged Jesus to come to his house and heal his only daughter who was 12 was dying.

iv) Woman with the flow of blood is Healed (Lk. 8:43 – 48)

When Jesus was on route to Jairus house, great crowds followed him and pressed him on either side.

Amongst them was a woman who had suffered from severe bleeding for 12 years.

She consulted doctors and spent all her savings on physicians. But she was not cured.

The society considered the woman unclean.

It blamed her for her illness.

She herself was embarrassed by her condition.

This woman walked behind Jesus and she touched the hem of the garment of Jesus.

Her bleeding stopped at once.

Jesus asked, who touched me? Everyone denied it. Peter replied the multitude was around Jesus and it was difficult to know who had touched him. Jesus persisted someone touched him.

The woman who had touched Jesus the woman came forward, and fell at his feet and confessed to all her sickness and explained why she touched Jesus and how she was healed at once. Jesus said to her “My daughter, your faith has made you well. Go in peace”.

Jairus daughter is raised. Lk.8: 40 – 42, 49 – 56

As Jesus was talking to her, Jairus was told that his little girl was dead.

“Don’t bother the teacher anymore.

Jesus told Jairus not to fear but to believe and she will be well.

When he got to the house he went into the room with Peter, John and James and the parents of the girl.

People around were weeping and wailing.

But Jesus told them not to weep.

She is not dead but asleep.

They scorned and laughed at him for saying that she is asleep because they knew she was dead.

Jesus took the girl by hand and called out “Get up, my child” – ‘little girl arise’. She immediately got up and Jesus ordered the parent to give her food.

He commanded them not to tell what had happened.

Teachings from these two miracles

The miracle of raising Jairus daughter teaches Christians that Jesus is compassionate and the author of life.

He has power over death, resurrection and life.

In the miracle of healing the Woman with the flow of blood:

a. Jesus made her healing public. This was probably because He wanted to acknowledge the woman’s faith in the public. Jesus made it clear that her faith made her whole.

b. Jesus wanted to challenge the cultural practices that kept women in bandage and could not participate in public life.

c. Jesus made her healing public so that the community can receive her back and shall not isolate her again.

From this miracle of healing this woman, Christians learn that one; Jesus is the healer.

He has power over all sicknesses even those without cure.

Two, Christians should have faith in Jesus Christ.

Lesson Revision Questions

1. Narrate the healing of the Gerasene demoniac Lk 8: 26-39

2. What lessons can Christians learn fro the healing of the demoniac man above?

3. What do the miracles of Jesus teach us about him?

4. Compare the raising of Jairus daughter and the healing of the woman with the flow of blood


A comparison of the raising of Jairus daughter and the healing of the woman with flow of blood.

(i) Jairus daughter was 12 years old and the woman sick with the flow of blood had suffered for 12 years.

(ii) Jesus referred to both of them as daughter.

(iii) Their situation – death and flow of blood did not have a cure (iv) The public witnessed the miracle of the woman with the flow of blood.

(v) Jesus commanded Jairus to keep secret raising of his daughter.

Lesson Twelve. Commissioning of the Twelve Disciples Lk 9:1 – 10


Commission means to officially ask someone to do something.

Learning Outcomes: By the end of the lesson, you should be able to:

a Describe the commissioning of the twelve disciples.

b Explain the story of the feeding of the 5000.

c Describe the transfiguration of Jesus.

d Explain the teachings of Jesus on faith and humility.

a. The commissioning of the twelve disciples

The twelve disciples or followers accompanied Jesus wherever he went.

They were regarded as apostles.

An apostle comes from a Greek word ‘Apostols’ which means ‘send out’ one who is sent or a ‘missionary’.

The commissioning of the 12 disciples meant that they were given four main duties, power and authority to:

a) Exorcise or cast out demons

b) Cure diseases

c) Heal the sick

d) Preach the Kingdom of God and proclaim the arrival of God’s


They were told to:

i) Take nothing for the journey

ii) Initiate attack on the forces of evil

iii) Depend entirely on God to take care of them

iv) Take no stick, no beggars’ bag, no food, no money and not even an extra shirt for their journey

v) Whatever house they entered they were to stay there until they leave the town.

vi) If they were not welcomed, they were to leave that town and shake the dust off their feet as a warning to that city or town.

With these instructions, the disciples left and travelled to all villages preaching the Good News and healing people everywhere. King Herod was perplexed by the work of the disciples and he desired to see Jesus.

b. Feeding of the five thousand.

Please open your Bible and read Luke chapter 9. Verses 11-17)

After reading these verses, about feeding of the five thousand (5000) people we learn that

1. Jesus is concerned about people’s physical needs

2. Jesus demonstrated that he is the bread of life

3. Jesus has divine power

4. The Church has the duty of continuing to feed its followers both spiritually and physically.

5. The feeding of the 5000 people points to the Messianic banquet

6. Christians must learn to share whatever they have with one another

7. From this miracle, Jesus expected his disciples to appreciate their responsibility. Their work was not only to preach and heal but also feed the hungry.

Feeding was both physical and spiritual.

The personality of Jesus and his identity Lk. 9:18 – 27

When Jesus was alone with his disciples, he asked them who people say he is.

The disciples told him that some say he is John the Baptist, others say he is Elijah and others say he is one of the old prophets who have risen again.

Jesus asked them who they, disciples say he is.

Peter replied that he is Christ of God.

Jesus then told them not to tell people who he is for he Son of man has first to suffer many things be rejected by the elders chief, priests and scribes, be killed and be raised the third day.

Jesus announced to the disciples of his passion (great sufferings) Jesus is the Christ (anointed) of God – Messiah as well as the son of man.

A divine nature and a human nature.

Jesus went on ahead to tell his disciples that they should deny themselves (self – denial) take up their cross daily and be ready to lose their lives for Jesus.

However, great is the reward for the faithful.

Lesson Thrteen: the Transfiguration (Lk.9: 28 – 36)

Instructions. Read. Luke chapter 9, verse 28 to 36. Then answer revision questions that follow.

A brief summary from the Bible

Transfiguration is change or transformation of form or appearance.

Jesus was transformed in appearance when he took Peter, John and James to the mountain to pray.

During the transfiguration, Moses and Elijah came down from heaven to talk with Jesus about his coming death in Jerusalem.

Moses, Elijah and Jesus were in heavenly glory and glorious splendor. Peter, John and James were asleep.

When they woke up, they saw Jesus’ glory. They also saw Elijah and Moses with Jesus.

Peter suggested to Jesus that they build three tents for Jesus, Elijah and Moses.

As he spoke a cloud overshadowed them.

A voice from the cloud said ‘this is my son, whom I have chosen——– listen to him”.

The cloud left and the disciples found themselves with Jesus.

They kept what they saw and heard to themselves.

Significance and importance of transfiguration

a. The voice from heaven confirmed that Jesus is the Christ of God, or the Messiah.

b. Moses represented the Old Testament law. Jesus came to fulfil the Law of Moses. It showed that

Jesus was not against the Law of Moses.

c. Elijah represented the Old Testament Prophets. This meant that Jesus had fulfilled the Old Testament.

prophecies. He is above the prophets.

d. Jesus is above or greater than the law and the prophets.

e. Transfiguration was a way of preparing the disciples for the death and resurrection of Jesus.

Death is not the end of life (Moses and Elijah appeared to confirm this)

f. The transfiguration prepared and gave strength to Jesus for what lay ahead of him

g. Dazzling appearance showed the glory of Jesus

h. The transfiguration also shows the importance of encouraging each other.

5.0 Revision questions

a. Explain the teachings of John the Baptist

b. Describe the baptism and temptation of Jesus and its relevance to Christians today.

c. Give reasons as to why Jesus was rejected at Nazareth

d. Describe the first miracles of Jesus at Capernaum

e. Narrate and dramatize the temptations of Jesus from the gospel according to St Luke,

f. Identify five occasions when Jesus was tempted

g. Explain ways in which Christians can be tempted today

h. Outline ways in which Christians can overcome temptations in the contemporary world

i. Identify lessons that Christians can learn from the temptations of Jesus?

j. What is the role of the clergy in Kenya?

k. How does the church participate in the upkeep of the clergy?

l. Define and describe the transfiguration of Jesus

Topic Four: the Journey to Jerusalem – Luke Ch. 9-18 Introduction

As Jesus travelled to Jerusalem, He prepared His disciples for the life they were to lead after He leaves them.

Learning Outcomes. By the end of the topic, you should be able to

a Identify duties and privileges and cost of a disciple.

b Describe the teachings of Jesus on prayer, hypocrisy, wealth and watchfulness’.

c Describe parables Jesus used to teach about prayer, hypocrisy, wealth and watchfulness.

Lesson One. Duties, Privileges and Cost of Discipleship

Lesson Outcomes. When you read this lesson, you should:

1. Explain discipleship

2. List duties given to disciples by Jesus Christ

3. Explain relevance of Christian discipleship to modern Church Jesus’ teaching on faith and humility

A brief summary from the Bible. Read (Luke 9: 37 – 50) for details. After the transfiguration, Jesus used two incidents to teach his disciples about faith and humility. One incident was the healing of a boy possessed by an evil spirit (Luke 9: 37 –43). Jesus rebuked the unclean spirit out of the boy and the boy was healed.

Jesus told His disciples that their lack of faith was the reason why they did not cure the boy.

Jesus informed his disciples that faith in him was important when carrying out his work.

Jesus’ teaching on His Work

The next question was ….. who is to work for Jesus? All Christians can work for Jesus even believers who are gentiles. Read (Luke 9 vs. 49 – 50). Jesus told his disciples not to forbid others from carrying out his work for whoever is not against Him is for Him.

This means that whoever had faith; even the Gentiles could carry out Jesus work.

Jesus’ teaching on His followers

Jesus was determined to go to Jerusalem.

As He travelled, men volunteered to follow him wherever he was going. Jesus replied that foxes have holes, birds of the air have nests but the Son of Man has nowhere to lay his head.

Jesus had no earthly home.

His mission on earth was only for a time.

A man requested to follow Jesus but asked permission to bury his father. Jesus told him to let the dead bury their dead. Disciples of Jesus have to leave their families in order to do His Work.

Mission of the 72 men. Read Luke 10:1 – 24

On the way to Jerusalem, Jesus sent out 72 disciples on a mission to promote the Gospel of the Kingdom of God through preaching and service.

The 72 disciples were sent in 2s in order to encourage or help each other.

The 72 were given instructions. Jesus told them that He has given them power over demons, serpents, scorpion.

They have power over all the powers of Satan.

When disciples returned, they reported that demons obeyed them.

In Luke 10 verse 20, Jesus asked the 72 to rejoice not because demons flee but because their names are written in heaven.

Out of the many followers, Jesus chose 12 apostles who learnt from Jesus and became His witnesses.

Jesus’ teaching on the greatest disciple

Read (Luke 9: 46- 48). The disciples asked themselves– who is the greatest amongst disciples amongst the 12 disciples? In response Jesus took a child by His side and said to the disciples.

Whoever welcomes this child in my name, welcomes me, as well as the one who sent me.

For the one who is least amongst you shall be the greatest in Heaven. Lessons from this example.

Jesus explained that His disciples needed values of humility and simplicity.

These virtues were needed to carry out the work of discipleship.

Teaching about Discipleship

1. True followers of Jesus Christ must

a. Be ready to detach themselves from families and material possessions.

b. Be ready to face rejections because not all people will accept them or their message.

c. Be ready to serve.

d. Be ready to cater for people’s physical needs.

e. Be self – less.

f. Not be hypocrites and should accept hospitality whenever it is given.

g. Be able to exercise self-evaluation.

2. Duties of a disciple were:

a) To preach the good news of salvation to other people and be ready to suffer for the sake of Christ.

b) Obey God’s commandments and follow teachings of Jesus.

c) To help the needy spiritually and with material needs.

d) To teach others about the Kingdom of God.

e) To heal the sick.

f) To cast out demons.

g) Be prepared to suffer for the sake of the gospel.

h) Being loyal to Jesus and faithful to the gospel.

i) Commitment and loyalty

3. Privileges of a disciple

a) One becomes a member of the Kingdom of God.

b) They get an assurance of eternal life.

c) They receive joy of winning other people to follow Jesus.

d) They receive peace, and blessings of God.

How are these teachings relevant to modern church leaders and members?

Modern church leaders have a duty to continue preaching God’s word to all people.

They should serve God in several ministries such as visiting the sick, caring for orphans, the destitute, widows, widowers, and the aged.

They should also be ready to suffer and even face rejection for the sake of the Christ.


1. What are the characteristics of a true follower of Christ?

2. State the privileges of being a disciple of Jesus Christ.

3. Why did Jesus choose the 12 disciples?

Lesson Two: a Committed Follower of Christ

Read Luke 10: 25-37, and Luke 11: 1-13

a. The parable of the Good Samaritan

A teacher of law asked Jesus questions in order to tempt him. One was “ what must I do to receive eternal life? (Read Luke 10: 25 to 28). Jesus replied with a question.

What do the scriptures say? He replied and Jesus told him to do as the scripture say. .

He asked another question. Who is my neighbour? (Luke 10 v 29). Jesus answered with the parable of the Good Samaritan.

In this parable, the righteous people among the Jews, Levites and priests, did not help the injured man.

A Samaritan whom Jews considered unclean and sinners helped him.

After narrating this parable Jesus asked the lawyer, who of the 3 travelers was a good neighbour? The lawyer said the Samaritan.

Lessons learnt from the parable of the Good Samaritan

In the above parable, Jesus stressed that a follower of Jesus should be:

(1) Committed

(2) Show love of God by loving people in need and their neighbours. A neighbour is anybody who requires assistance or help regardless of race, ethnicity, creed, colour or gender.

Jesus wants his followers to show love and concern to all people regardless of their background.

A neighbour uses his/her resources selflessly to help the needy. A neighbour is also compassionate, kind, and generous to the needy.

Jesus Visit to Martha and Mary (Read Luke 10: 38 – 42)

Martha welcomed Jesus in her home where she lived with her sister Mary.

While Martha prepared food, Mary sat at Jesus’ feet listening to his teaching. Martha complained.

She was doing all the work while Mary sat listening to Jesus teaching.

Jesus told Martha that Mary had made the right choice to listen to

His teaching. Lessons we can learn from Jesus Visit to Martha and Mary

1. A committed follower of Jesus is one who creates time to study and listen to God’s word.

2. A follower of Christ should ensure that their commitment to God is not overshadowed by daily duties,worries and responsibilities.

3. Jesus visit to Mary and Martha was also to teach disciples on the characteristics of a true disciple.

Revision exercise

1. From the teachings of Jesus, on the parable of the good Samaritan; who do you think is a committed follower of Jesus?

Lesson Three. Jesus’ Teaching on Prayer (Read Luke 11:1 – 13)

Prayer is communication with God. It is talking with God. People pray to God all the time. For example,people pray to God when:

1. They are in problems and in happiness;

2. Seeking healing and wealth,

3. Giving thanks to God,

4. Identifying the needs to be met, and asking for favors from God

5. Repenting and confessing their sins

6. Thanking God

There are many forms or types of prayers. These are:

1. Intercessory prayer

Praying for the needs of others.

2. Prayer for repentance

For forgiveness of sins.

3. Thanksgiving prayer

Giving thanks to God for what he has done.

4. Worship prayer

Prayers to worship God.

5. Praise prayers

to praise God, Honor God.

6. Supplication and petition prayer

whereby an individual makes their needs known to God and asks for divine intervention.

Jesus prayed often during his life’s Ministry.

The disciples asked him to show them how to pray. Jesus responded by teaching them the Lords Prayer.

“Our Father who art in Heaven Hallowed be thy name Thy Kingdom come Thy will be done on earth asIt is in heaven Give us this day our daily bread Forgive us our trespasses As we forgive those who trespass against us Lead us not into temptation But deliver us from evil”

a) Our Father who art in heaven

The disciples were told to address God as ‘Our father’. God is to be seen and addressed as a Father.

b) Hallowed be thy name

The name of God should be respected and revered.

c) Thy Kingdom come

In Prayer, Christians/disciples are to pray that the rulership of God reign amongst them.

d) Thy will be done on earth as it is in heaven

Christians to obey the will of God.

e) Give us this day our daily bread

Christians to pray for their needs.

f. Forgive us our trespasses

we ask for forgiveness of our sins and those of others.

g. Jesus taught that one should be persistent in prayer

If a man goes to his friend at midnight and asks for bread to give to his visitor, the friend will open the door and give his friend all that he needs.

This is because his friend was persistent in knocking on the door.

In conclusion, if prayers are to be effective, one must have faith and be persistent.

Believe that God shall answer prayers.

A committed follower of Jesus should pray at all times.

In prayer, one should acknowledge that God is the Father and that all prayers should be addressed to him.

Two, one should have faith that God answers prayers.

Therefore we should be persistent in prayer.

Reasons why Christians should prayTo honor GodTo request for favorsTo offer thanksgivingTo confess their sins and seek for forgiveness of sinsTo seek God’s protectionTo intercede on behalf of othersTo strengthen their relationship with God

Revision exercise

1. What did Jesus teach about prayer?

2. What is the importance of prayer?

Lesson Four: Use of God’s Power to Overcome Evil. Read Luke 11:14 – 28

Learning outcomes. By the end of the lesson, you should be able to:

1. Narrate Jesus teaching about demons

2. Explain why the sign of Jonah was important

3. Describe how God’s power overcomes evil

a. Jesus and Beelzebub. (Read Luke 11: 14 to 28)

Jesus drove out a mute demon. The possessed man began to talk. The crowd said that Jesus was casting out demons using the power of Beelzebub (the price of demons).

Beelzebul was an evil spirit. However Jesus replied “Any country that divides itself into groups which fight each other will not last very long and a family divided against itself will fall.

Jesus said it is by the power of God that drives out demons.

Lessons learnt

i. Satan cannot fight against himself therefore Jesus cannot be an agent of Beelzebub / Satan.

ii. Gods Kingdom and that of Satan were two separate Kingdoms and could not co exist.

iii. The destruction of Satan’s power meant that the Kingdom of God was in Israel and it was powerful.

God’s power destroyed Satan’s kingdom. It is impossible to be neutral in the battle between Christ and Satan. One has to belong to either Christ or Satan.

iv. Jesus has power to drive out demons.

v. Demons occupy people. They bring disabilities and diseases.

What makes people to be insane? Mentally sick

b. The sign of Jonah. (Read Luke 11: 29 – 32)

After Jesus drove out the dumb spirit, Jews demanded performance of greater miracles.

They wanted Jesus to prove that he was their expected messiah. Jesus said that Jonah was a great miracle.

But Jesus was greater miracle than that of Jonah, and King Solomon. King Solomon was full of wisdom. He was so great that Queen of Sheba came to listen to his wisdom. Jesus like Jonah had brought a message of judgment.

Jesus is greater than Jonah or Solomon.

If Jews refuse to receive and listen to Jesus, the Gentiles like Queen of Sheba, will bear testimony against the Jews and receive God’s salvation.

c. The light of the body. Read Luke: 11: 33 – 36

Jesus taught that no one lights a lamp and hides it under a bowl. A lamp is placed where all can see its light. He said that the human eye is the lamp or the light of the body.

Jesus asked the listeners to make sure that “the light in you is not darkness” (vs. 35). What is the main message in this story?

Lesson Five: Jesus Teaching on Hypocrisy, Wealth, Watchfulness and Readiness Introduction


is being dishonest and insincere or pretending to someone else or people. What did Jesus teach about hypocrisy?

Learning outcomes. After reading these verses in Luke:

1. State what Jesus taught on hypocrisy

2. Explain value of wealth

3. Discuss how modern Christians can be watchful and ready for the coming of Jesus Christ

a. Hypocrisy. Read Luke 12: 1- 12

A Pharisee invited Jesus to his house for a meal. When Jesus did not wash before eating the meal, the Pharisee was surprised. Jesus told him “.. you Pharisees clean the outside of your cup and plate, but inside you are full violence and evil”, greed and wickedness (vs. 39).

Jesus condemned the Pharisees for their hypocrisy.

They were concerned with outward appearances and traditions such as ceremonial washing of cups, hands, and dishes but not the souls of people.

They loved the outward show and public recognition. Pharisees tithed, “but neglected justice and love of God” (vs. 42). They imposed rules and regulations for people to follow, yet they themselves did not practice what they preached. They refused to confess their sins but pointed out sins in others.

They hinder others from entering the kingdom of God.

They had failed to make people understand the true interpretation of the law.

They were like unmarked graves – dead to people yet the people trusted them.

After this teaching, the Pharisees and the teachers of the law began to oppose Jesus fiercely.

What do we learn from Jesus teachings? Followers of Jesus should be

1. Sincere and upright (honest);

(2) obey God’s commands;

(3), live to please God but not other people;

(4) confess publicly their loyalty to God and

(5) love God without fear and

(6) be dependent on the Holy Spirit

b. The Parable of the Rich Fool. (Read Luke 12:13 to 21).

Someone wanted justice. His brother had refused to share with him his father’s wealth.

He wanted Jesus to order his brother to divide their father’s inheritance between him.

In response, Jesus answered him with the parable of the rich fool. A rich man expected a good harvest of his crops.

He thought he did not have storage for the crop he expected to harvest.

The man said to himself. i will demolish my granaries and stores, then build bigger ones to store all my corn, and other goods. He expected to have enough food to last him a lifetime.

Then he can enjoy his wealth; eating, drinking and making merry.

But God told him that his life would be demanded from him that same night. What will happen to his wealth, as he was not rich in God’s sight?

Lessons to learn

i Followers of Jesus should not put their trust in material wealth but in God

ii Life consists of food, other material wealth and trust in God

iii Whoever seeks God’s kingdom, will receive material blessings from God

iv Jesus did not condemn material possessions but rather the attitude towards material possessions.

v Jesus condemned attachment to material wealth instead of trust in God who controls our lives.

c. Watchfulness, Readiness, and Instructions. (Read Luke 12: 35 – 59)

Jesus told his disciples to be:

i Watchful and ready for the return of the Son of Man i.e. Jesus.

ii Faithful servants so that when Jesus returns, he will find them ready and acting responsibly

iii Watchful of possible divisions in families

iv Royal to Christ

v Ready for the coming of the Son of Man. He will come at unexpected time; like a thief who comes when the owner of the house is not aware.

vi Observing things of the kingdom of God, which were present in the person of Jesus.

vii Like good servants, and watch over the affairs of the master.

viii Be decision makers and follow the teachings of Jesus without being watched.

Review questions

1. In What Ways Were the Pharisees Hypocritical? Lesson Six: the Kingdom of God

Learning Outcomes. By the end of this topic, you should be able to

1. Explain the teachings of Jesus about the kingdom of God

4. Narrate the parables of

a. The unfaithful fig tree

b. The mustard seed

c. Parable of the feast

d. Parable of the great feast

e. Parable of the lost sheep and the lost son

The Kingdom of God

Kingdom of God refers to rule of God, or God’s authority on people’s lives and the world He created.

The kingdom of God was present in Jesus. It is now and in the future reality.

The teachings, and miracles of Jesus were a manifestation of the Kingdom of God. For anyone to enter God’s kingdom, one has to repent and ask for forgiveness.

The Kingdom of God continues to grow and spread through the work of the Church.

Those who accept the teachings of Jesus Christ about God’s Kingdom are members of the Kingdom of God. Now to enter the Kingdom of God, one has to repent and not judge others.

Read Luke 13:1-5. Luke has explained the kingdom of God and outlined who will enter it.

The Kingdom of God has unfruitful fig tree (Read Luke, 13: 6 – 9).

A farmer had a fig tree that was unproductive for 3 years. He ordered the gardener to cut it down.

The gardener requested for the fig tree to be given another chance. He promised to dig around the fig tree and add fertilizer. If it bears fruits well, it can survive, if it doesn’t bear fruit, then it should be cut down.

Lessons learnt from the parable

The unproductive fig tree represents followers of Jesus who are unproductive because they do not follow the teachings of Jesus Christ. God gives people chances to repent just like the fig tree was given a second chance to bear fruit. Jesus is the gardener who pleads for people before God.

The followers of Jesus are expected to be fruitful.

What are the figs used for?

a. Parable of the mustard seed. Read Luke, 13:18 – 19

Jesus likened the kingdom of God to a mustard seed, which is very small. When a mustard seed is planted, it grows fast to become a big tree. It is difficult to control its growth. When mature, the fig tree attracts many birds, which feed on its seeds.

Lesson learnt from the parable.

The Kingdom of GodBegins as a small seed and grows quietly and humblyThen it grows and spreads to all corners of the earthAnd It attracts many people

b. Parable of the Yeast. Read Luke, 13: 20 – 21

The Kingdom of God is like yeast. Yeast makes dough rise and the bread big.

The Kingdom of God grows secretly and slowly just like the dough rises without being noticed. It is only God who knows how a kingdom grows.

The Kingdom of God grows as a small unit that eventually grows, spreads and reaches out to many people in many nations.

c. The narrow door. Read Luke, 13: 22 – 30

As Jesus was teaching in towns and villages, a person asked him whether a few people would be saved.

Jesus replied that his followers should make every effort to go through the narrow door as it leads to the Kingdom of God. The narrow door will not remain open forever.

Lesson learnt from the parableThose who wish to follow Jesus must repent immediatelyEntrance to God’s Kingdom is through repentanceEverybody is invited to enter into the Kingdom of God.

d. Jesus heals a crippled woman on the Sabbath. Luke, 13:10 – 12

Jesus was teaching in the synagogue on Sabbath. Jesus healed a woman who had an evil spirit, which had bent her back (Hunch back) for 18 years. Jesus saw her and told her “woman, you are free from your illness!” She was made straight and immediately glorified God.

The official of the synagogue was annoyed that Jesus was healing on a Sabbath.

He and others were hostile to Jesus for healing/working on the Sabbath.

Jesus told him, you hypocrite.

You feed and look after your animals on the Sabbath day.

Jesus emphasized that human life is more important than animal life or even observing the Sabbath.

Lessons learnt from the parable

Jesus came to set people free from the bondage of sickness and Satan.

Jesus work of liberation is continuous.

It has to be performed even on a Sabbath day because human life is more important than animal life or even observing the Sabbath.

e. Jesus’ Love for Jerusalem.

(Read Luke13: 31 – 35)

As Jesus continued with his teachings, he reached Jerusalem. Pharisees informed him that Herod wanted to kill him. His response was ‘go and tell that fox ” I will continue healing the sick and casting out demons.

Jesus however, lamented over Jerusalem for rejecting God’s messengers.

God would abandon Jerusalem for rejecting Jesus. Jerusalem was the site of Jesus death.

It would eventually acknowledge Jesus as the Messiah who brings salvation to Israel and to the rest of the world.

f. Man with dropsy (swollen legs and arms) healed (Read Luke 14:1 – 6).

Jesus was invited to the house of the leading Pharisees for a meal on a Sabbath.

A man with dropsy (swollen legs and arms) came to Jesus for healing. The Pharisees watched Jesus closely to see what he would do. Jesus asked the Pharisees “ does our Law allow healing on the Sabbath or not?” They kept quiet.

Jesus healed the man who then left. Jesus asked the Pharisees, would they save their son or an ox if it fell in a well on a Sabbath.

They kept quiet.

g. Humility and Hospitality. (Read Luke 14: 7 – 14)

Jesus was in the house of a leading Pharisees and observed that some of the invited guests were choosing the best places to sit at the table. He taught the disciples how to be humble.

He said, when invited for a meal, let the owner give you a seat of honor that is reserved for important and honorable guests. Read verse 11. Jesus advised his host to invite the poor, cripples, and the blind who cannot invite you, as they have nothing to give back for generosity.

Lessons learnt from the parable

Jesus is teaching about humility and hospitality. Those who are humble shall be elevated.

Those who elevate themselves shall be humbled.

Followers of Jesus should extend invitations to the poor and the underprivileged in the society.

The Kingdom of God belongs to the humble people.

c. The parable of the Great Feast. Read Luke, 14: 15 – 24.

A man said to Jesus, “How happy are those who will sit down at the feast in the Kingdom of God” (verse 15).

In response Jesus told him that a man made a great feast and invited many friends and colleagues to the feast.

The invited guests failed to come and a servant was sent to inform them that the feast was ready.

All the invited guests gave personal excuses explaining why they could not come.

The master was angry and asked the servant to invite the poor, crippled, lame, the blind and anyone willing to come to the feast.

Lessons learnt from the parable

God has invited all people to the great feast of the Kingdom of God.

Those who honor his invitation will be blessed. Those who reject the invitation will be excluded from the feast.

Jesus explained that the Kingdom of God is like a great feast open to all Jews and Gentiles.

To enter the Kingdom of God, one has to make a personal decision because following Jesus means sacrificing activities that we consider important to us.

d. The Cost of Being a Disciple Read Luke 14: 25 – 33

True discipleship means loving Jesus more than ones family. This is a great sacrifice to detach oneself from the family.

A disciple must be ready to suffer for the sake of following Jesus.

Following Jesus requires skills of careful thinking, planning and detailed preparations. Jesus compared true discipleship to the planning required when building a tower or engaging in a military operation.

Lessons / teachings learnt from the parable

True discipleship means making great sacrifices, “none of you can be my disciple unless you give up everything you have” (verse 33). Jesus disciples are expected to do careful planning before deciding to follow him because they are required to love God more than anyone else even their relatives and friends.

e. The parable of the Lost Sheep Read Luke, 15:1 – 7

Pharisees and teachers of law complained to Jesus because Jesus was teaching ordinary people such as tax collectors, and outcasts considered sinners by them. Jesus told the Pharisees and teachers of law the parable of the lost sheep.

He told them that if a shepherd with 100 sheep lost one of them, what action would he take? Wouldn’t he leave the 99 sheep and go out to look for the lost sheep? And on finding it, wouldn’t the shepherd celebrate with friends and neighbours? Jesus said that God celebrates if “over one sinner who repents than over 99 respectable people who do not need to repent.”

Lessons / teachings learnt from the parable

iii God is a shepherd and takes care of all his people.

iv He does not want any of his people to be lost.

v God searches for those lost in sin until he finds them.

vi When one sinner repents, God is overjoyed and rejoices.

vii God is the good shepherd who has come to seek and save the lost.

f. Parable of the Lost Coin. Read Luke, 15: 8 – 10

If a woman losses one of her ten silver coins, she searches until she finds it.

And if it is found, she invites her friends and neighbours to celebrate.

Lessons learnt from the parable

God and the angels in heaven search make every effort to seek the lost sinner until they find them.

Jesus lights the world, looking for sinners who are lost because they are precious in God’s sight.

g. Parable of the Lost Son (prodigal son) Read Luke 15:11 – 32

Jesus then told the story of a father who had two sons. The younger was given his share of inheritance he had requested.

He went to foreign lands and wasted his inheritance.

He became poor and decided to return home and ask his father to forgive him and employ him as a servant.

His father kissed him and celebrated his return. The father announced to his guests that the son who was lost is now found. – – The one who was dead is now live. The elder son was angry and unhappy because his father had never held a celebration for him, inspite of his hard work and obedience.

His father told him “my son you are always here with me, and everything I have is yours”. We are just celebrating the return of the lost son.

Lessons learnt from the parable

a. A person dies spiritually if they sin

b. God loves all people including sinners

c. God is ready to forgive every sinner who repents

d. There is no sin that God cannot give

e. Jesus taught that both the righteous and unrighteous require God’s forgiveness

f. There is joy and happiness in heaven when one sinner repents.

g. Christians should confess their sins and acknowledge that Jesus saves repentant sinners h. God accepts unconditionally any sinner who comes back to him in repentance.

i. Confession of sins is a condition for entering the Kingdom of God.

A Great Feast for All Who Are Prepared Luke 14: 1 – 35 Saq.

What are the qualities of those who belong to the kingdom of God?

Answer. Qualities of people who belong to the Kingdom of God Those who belong to the Kingdom of God:

i. Obey God’s commandments

ii. Accept God’s rule in their lives

iii Show God’s love to others

iv Are ready to make sacrifices so as to be followers of Jesus

v Read God’s word and preach to others

vi Confess their sins and seek forgiveness of their sins through repentance.

Review questions

1. Give an explanation of the term Kingdom of God

2. What did Jesus teach about the kingdom of God?

3. What lessons do Christians learn from the parables of the lost son?


1. The term Kingdom of God means the role of God or God’s authority in people’s lives and the world.

Lesson Seven: Teachings on Wealth and Poverty. LK 16:1 – 32

Learning Outcomes. By the end of the topic, you should be able to:

a) Explain the teachings of Jesus on wealth, and poverty

b) Narrate the teachings of Jesus on repentance


While wealth is possession of material things such as money or occupation of a high social economic status, poverty is the opposite.

It is lack of basic needs such as water, education, food, shelter, clothing, and health.

When teaching about wealth, Jesus taught using two parables.

These were:

(1) parable of the shrewd manager

(2) parable of the rich man and Lazarus Parable of the shrewd manager Read Luke, 16: 1 – 18

When the shrewd manager realized that his master was going to sack him due to his dishonesty, he asked the debtors to change the amounts they owed their master to smaller amounts.

He did this to make friends with a few people who would give him a place to stay after he was sacked.

The master praised the shrewd manager and did not sack him.

The shrewd manager is praised not because of his dishonesty but because he acted promptly and with great presence of mind in a moment of crisis.

Jesus is encouraging his disciples and followers to make prompt (quick, appropriate, timely) decisions.

They should use wealth to serve God. It should not be allowed to take the place of God. Followers of Jesus should be honest in small and big things.

The Rich Man and Lazarus. Read Luke, 16: 19 – 31.

A rich man lived in luxury. At his gates was a poor man, called Lazarus whose body was covered by sores.

The rich man did not feed Lazarus. He ate food remains together with the rich man’s dogs.

When rich man died, he went to hell. When Lazarus died, he went to heaven and sat at Abraham/s bosom. When in hell, the rich man was tormented while Lazarus was at peace.

Lessons to learn from this parable.

The rich isn’t condemned for being rich but because of his altitude towards Lazarus. He used his wealth for self-gratification and not for service to the needy.

The wealthy should realize that it is God who gives wealth and he should be given honor. Riches can hinder the wealthy from inheriting eternal life, especially if they put their trust in riches instead of God who is the source of all wealth and blessings.

Revision exercise

1. From the parable of the rich fool what can Christians learn about the use of wealth?

2. Narrate the parable of the shrewd manager

Lesson Eight. Jesus Teaching on Forgiveness Read Luke 17: 1 – 4

Learning outcomes. By the end of this lesson, you shall

Explain the power of Christian faith. Sin. Read Luke 17: 1-4.

Jesus taught his disciples to forgive offenders who repent. Those who sin should seek forgiveness.

If they offend 7 times in a day, forgive them 7 times. Followers of Jesus need faith to forgive others.

The power of faith. Read Luke, 17: 5 – 11.

Faith is defined as complete trust or confidence in God. It is absolute truthfulness and trust in everything that comes from God.

The apostles asked Jesus to increase their faith.

Followers of Jesus should have faith.

Faith has no measure. Faith as big as a mustard seed can empower Christians to perform miracles that serve God.

Faith is necessary.

With faith, Christians can forgive others and be servants of God.

Disciples should have faith.

Christians understand that they owe everything to God.

Jesus heals ten lepers. Read Luke, 17:11- 19

Jesus was on his way to Jerusalem when he met ten lepers.

They requested Jesus to heal them.

Jesus told them to go and show themselves to the priests. On the way, they were healed. One of them, a Samaritan, returned to thank Jesus for healing him. The Samaritans and the Jews did not associate.

Jesus told the Samaritan that his faith has made him whole.

Faith is necessary for healing any disease.

Leprosy is a disease that leads to loss of fingers, toes and other parts of the body.

It was a dreadful skin disease, which Jews feared. Lepers were isolated from other people.

They lived dejected lives.

The coming of the kingdom. Read Luke 17: 20 – 37

The Pharisee demanded to know when the kingdom of God would come. Jesus replied that the kingdom of God was within those who had accepted Jesus and his teachings.

Those who wanted had received the kingdom.

Faith is necessary to discover the power of God’s kingdom.

The coming of the son of man, i.e. Jesus will bring the kingdom to reality.

The coming of the son of man is also referred to as the day of the Lord

Day of Judgment. Read Luke, 21: 27- 28.

Those who obey Jesus will be saved but those who reject him will be punished.

Lessons to learn. God expects Christians to have faith in him. Christians should have faith in Jesus so that they can inherit eternal life. Faith is needed to strengthen Christians.

Faith is important in the life of a Christian until Jesus returns, i.e. the second coming.

Revision exercise

1. What did Jesus teach on forgiveness

Lesson Nine. Persistence in Prayer, Read Luke, 18:1 – 14

Learning outcomes. By the end of this lesson

Discuss the values of persistence in prayer.

To teach about persistence in prayer, Jesus used two parables.

These were the parables of: the widow and a corrupt judge and examples of prayer by a Pharisee and a tax collector.

a. The widow and the unjust judge. Read Luke, 18: 1 – 9

Jesus had already taught the disciples how to pray. He now tells them that they ought to pray and not faint.

He gives a parable to explain his point.

A widow went to a corrupt judge to have her adversaries judged.

The judge was corrupt and ignored her.

He however gave in to her demands since she was persistent and wearing him down.

The judge helped her because of her persistence and courage.

Lessons learnt from the parable

Followers of Jesus should pray with courage and be persistent in prayer. God hears and answers prayers.

Christians should pray without ceasing and with faith and trust that their prayers will be answered.

b. Parable of the Pharisee, and tax collector, Read Luke, 18:9 – 14

A Pharisee and tax collector went to the temple to pray. The Pharisee offered a long prayer focusing on his achievements.

The tax collector (publican) did not have much to say except asking for mercy, as he was a sinner.

Followers of Jesus should acknowledge they are sinners and seek forgiveness.

They should approach God in humility and avoid spiritual pride, and selfrighteousness.

Revision exercise

1. State the parable of the widow and the unjust judge Lesson Ten. The Way to Salvation, Read Luke, 18: 15 – 19: 1 – 27. Introduction:

The word ‘salvation’ refers to the act of saving or being saved from sin.

Those who have received salvation area assured of eternal life.

To receive salvation a person must acknowledge that he is a sinner and repent their sins.

In this way, they receive forgiveness and are reconciled to God.

Learning outcomes. By the end of this lesson, you should

a. State the meaning of salvation

b. Discuss characteristics of salvation

c. Give examples of those who will enter the Kingdom of God.

d. Explain how Jesus predicted his death


Salvation means being saved from a life-threatening situation. In Christianity, salvation refers to the process of being delivered from sin and its consequences.

Those who are saved are assured of eternal life. Jesus taught about salvation using children to illustrate his message.

This is what happened.

Some people brought their children to Jesus so that he could bless them.

The disciples scolded them.

Jesus asked the children to come to him and he blessed them.

Jesus taught his disciples that they must be humble like children in order to enter the kingdom of God.

The road to salvation is by being simple, humble, and trusting like little children.

The kingdom of God belongs to those who humble themselves like the little children.

The rich man. Read Luke, 18:18 – 30

The entry into the kingdom of God was further explained through the story of the rich man.

The rich man came to Jesus wanting to know how he could inherit eternal life and be saved.

Jesus reminded him of the importance of keeping the commandments.

The young man responded that he had observed the commandments since he was young.

Jesus told him there is one thing remaining to do; sell everything he has, and give it to the poor, and then follow Jesus.

The rich man was very sorrowful for he was very wealthy.

Wealth can hinder the rich from receiving salvation.

Jesus acknowledged the sacrifice made by his disciples.

He emphasized that disciples shall receive salvation in the present and in life to come.

Salvation is a gift from God.

Salvation is received; by those who accept to follow Jesus.

Trusting in wealth can be a hindrance to salvation.

The rich may find it difficult to inherit eternal life.

Jesus predicts his death, a 3rd time. Read Luke, 18: 31 – 34.

Jesus predicted his death a three times. First was after asking his disciples who they say he was.

The second time was after transfiguration when his face was set towards Jerusalem.

The third prediction shall be in Jerusalem (Luke 18:31-34).

Jesus told the disciples that previous prophecies would be fulfilled in Jerusalem.

His death was going to take place in Jerusalem according to the writings of the prophets.

It was going to be a painful death.

He shall be beaten, mocked, spit upon and put to death.

But on the third day, he shall rise again.

The disciples did not understand what Jesus was telling them.

Jesus had to die so that those who believed in him may receive eternal life. The death and resurrection of Jesus gives Christians hope of eternal life.

Jesus heals a blood beggar. Read Luke, 18: 35 – 43

As Jesus neared Jericho, a blind man sat by the roadside begging. When he heard the multitude pass by, he inquired what was going on and he was told that Jesus of Nazareth was passing by.

He then cried out “Jesus, Son of David, have mercy on me” The crowds rebuked him but he cried out louder to Jesus to have mercy on him. Jesus asked him what he wanted. He said he wanted to see.

Jesus told him to receive his sight for his faith had made him whole.

The beggar was joyful and he followed Jesus rejoicing. Lessons learnt.

Christians should have faith in Jesus. They should also be persistent and make specific requests.

Lesson Thirteen: Jesus and Zacchaeus Lk 19:1 – 9 Learning outcomes. By the end of this lesson,

a. Narrate events leading to salvation of Zacchaeus

b. Explain meanings of the story of the man who gave gold coins to his servants

Zacchaeus was short. His profession was a tax collector. He was rich. He wanted to be saved.

When Jesus was passing by Jericho, he wanted to see Jesus. He couldn’t because he was short.

He ran and climbed a sycamore tree to see Jesus. When Jesus came to the place where Zacchaeus was, he looked up and said “Hurry down, Zacchaeus, because I must stay in your house today” (verse 5).

Jesus then went with Zacchaeus to his house. When people saw this they grumbled, and murmured.

They said that Jesus was going to a house of a sinner.

Jesus told them that salvation has come to the house of Zacchaeus, a son of Abraham … the Son of man came to seek and save the lost.

There is no sin that God cannot forgive, even that of a tax collector.

Zacchaeus told Jesus that he was going to give to the poor half of his wealth and whatever he took from any man and woman wrongfully, he will restore four times.

From this salvation, we learn that the rich should share their wealth with the needy.

The Parable of the Gold Coins: Luke, 19: 11 – 27.

A certain nobleman went to a far country. Before he left he called his ten servants and gave each a gold coin (ten pounds in total). He told them to trade with the coins until he returns.

When he returned, he called the servants to report profits they had made.

The first servant said that one-pound coin had made profit of 10 pounds (gold coins). He made the manager of ten cities.

The second servant had traded and gained 5 pounds.

He was made the manager of 5 cities.

The third one had hidden the pound. He did not trade.

He accused the master of being mean, and cruel.

He returned the pound, which was given to the servant with 10 pounds.

Lessons to learn.

This parable was about the kingdom of God. God expects us to use opportunities he has given to us for his work.

Each one of us shall account for the use of the abilities and skills that God gave to us – students, workers, and other professionals.

To receive eternal life, Christians should repent and be obedient to God’s instructions.

Revision questions

1. What did Jesus teach by using the example of little children?

5. Give an account of how Jesus healed the blind beggar

6. Explain the relevance of Jesus’ teachings on salvation to Christians

Topic Five: the Jerusalem Ministry. Luke, 19: 28 – 21: 38 Lesson Outcomes. By the end of this topic, you should:

a. Describe the triumphant entry of Jesus into Jerusalem

b. Narrate events in the cleansing of the temple

c. Discuss Jesus’ teachings about eschatology

Lesson One: the Triumphant Entry of Jesus to Jerusalem Lk 19:28 – 40

Learning outcomes. By the end of this lesson, you should

a. Explain why Jesus rode on a young colt into Jerusalem

b. Discuss why Jesus wept over Jerusalem

b. Describe what Jesus did when he went to the temple

a. The triumphant approach to Jerusalem. Luke 19: 28- 40.

Jesus death had to happen in Jerusalem. Hence Jesus went to Jerusalem. He sent two disciples to a place where there was a colt (young donkey) that no person had ever ridden.

They took it to Jesus. They threw their garments on the colt, and Jesus sat on it.

As Jesus rode, people spread their clothes on the road. As Jesus neared Jerusalem, a “large crowd of his disciples began to” praise God (vs37).

The crowd said ‘blessed be the king who comes in the name of the lord’.

The Pharisees told Jesus to rebuke the disciples.

Jesus told them if the disciples kept quiet the stones would start shouting.

Jesus made his entry into Jerusalem in a royal (kingly) procession.

He was Israel’s humble king who came with peace and not a political leader.

He rode on a donkey – a symbol of peace.

This was unlike the political kings who rode on the horses during that time.

b. Jesus weeps over Jerusalem. Read, Luke 41- 44.

When Jesus was near Jerusalem he wept.

He then foretold the coming destruction of Jerusalem due to its rejection of the messiah.

The rejoicing of his triumphant entry to Jerusalem turned to mourning as he foretold the destruction of Jerusalem by Romans in 70 A.D.

c. Jesus goes to the temple. Read Luke 19:45 – 48.

Jesus went to Jerusalem temple and evicted traders. He told them that the house of God is a house of prayer not a den of thieves.

Jeremiah spoke these same words during his temple sermon.

The chief priests and scribes began planning how to kill Jesus.

Lesson Two. Pharisees, Scribes Question Jesus. Luke 20 1-47

Learning outcomes. By the end of the lesson you should be able to: –

1. Describe the question about the authority of Jesus

2. Describe the parable of the tenants in the vineyard

3. Describe the question about paying taxes

4. Describe the question about resurrection

5. Describe Jesus’ teachings against the teachers of law

6. Describe the parable of the widow’s offering

a. The question about Jesus’ authority. Read Luke, 20:1 – 8.

The Jewish leaders wanted to know from Jesus by whose authority he was doing all the things he was doing. In response Jesus asked them “did John’s right to baptize come from God or from human beings?” (Vs4).

They discussed among themselves and decided not answer.

Jesus told them “neither will I tell you”. In response to his authority being questioned he told a parable.

b. The parable of the Tenants in the Vineyard.

Read the parable in Luke, 20: 9 – 18. The tenants refused to pay the owner of the vineyard his share of the harvest.

They threw out the servants he sent to collect his share of the harvest.

When he sent his son, they killed him so that they can own the vineyard. Jesus asked the people… “What will the owner of the vineyard do to the tenants?”

c. The Question about paying taxes. Read Luke 20:19-28

Pharisees, and scribes (teachers of the law) and chief priests planned to arrest Jesus but they were afraid of the people.

They sent spies to trick Jesus by asking this question -” …is it against our law for us to pay taxes to the Roman Empire, or not? Jesus used the currency and told them “pay the Emperor Caesar what belongs to him and pay God what belongs to God.” (Verse 25) This was a tricky question.

Jesus here teachers people to obey the rules of the land and to obey God’s rules.

d. The Question about Resurrection

The Sadducees who did not believe in resurrection tempted Jesus with another question.

They wanted to know this. When resurrection comes, who shall be the husband to a woman who was married to the first brother and inherited as a widow by the other six brothers? Jesus told them the men and women who shall be worthy of resurrection shall not marry.

They shall be like angels and cannot die (verse 34 to 38).

e. Jesus warns against the Teachers of the law

Jesus warned his disciples. Be careful and guard yourselves against teachers of the law, the scribes. They were hypocritical.

They wore long robes, said long prayers, looked for positions of honor and exploited the widows.

f. The Widow’s Offering. Luke, 21: 1- 4

When people were giving offerings in the temple, a widow gave “two little copper coins”. Jesus said the poor widow had given all she had.

Likewise Christians should give to God not to be seen but from their hearts.

It is not the quantity of the gift that matters but the attitude of the giver.

Lesson Three: the Teachings of Jesus About Eschatology LK. 21: 5 – 38

Eschatology is from two Greek words, ‘eschatus’ and ‘logos’. Eschatus means end, Logos means study.

Eschatology means the study of the end times or in CRE the last days of Jesus.

For biblical information, read Luke 21:5-38 and Mathew 24: 1 – 36 and Mark 13:1-31.

Learning outcomes. After this lesson, you should:

a. Identify signs of end times

b. State uses of the temple during the time of Jesus

c. Discuss ways in which Christians can apply the parable of the fig tree

d. State relevance of Jesus’ teachings on eschatology

a. Signs of the end times. Jesus gave many signs that will inform

Christians that end of the time has come.

These were to happen at different times.

The signs were:

a) Destruction of the temple of Jerusalem by invading armies which shall surrounded it

b) Hatred of disciples and Christians because they were followers of Christ

c) Rejection of disciples by families because they were followers of Christ

d) Betrayal of the followers of Christ

e) Prosecution and imprisonment of Christians.

f) Many false messiahs. People would come claiming to be the Messiah, the Son God

g) Wars as nation rise against nations

h) Eruption of natural calamities such as plagues, earthquakes, famines, great fear among people.

i) Disruption in the sky and seas. Fall of strange heavenly beings from the sky and rise of seas.

j) Natural calamities such as earthquakes, plagues, famines bringing despair and distress in all nations.

k) The times shall be announced by signs in the stars, moon, sun and sea l) Appear of the ‘Son of man ‘ in power and glory at the end of times.

b. Uses of the temple during the time of Jesus

During the time of Jesus, the temple was used for

(a) Child dedication

(b) Circumcision

(c) Purification

(d) Trading and business centre

(e) Worshiping and prayer

(f) a place for celebrating festivals such as the Passover and other major feasts

(g) a learning centre or school for religious purposes.

For example disciples of the scribes learnt law in the temple.

The destruction of the temple symbolized the birth of Christianity.

From that time Christians became the new temple of God.

c. The parable of the fig tree Lk.21: 29 – 33

Jesus used the parable of the fig tree to explain more about the end times.

Appearance of leaves in the fig tree and other trees inform us that summer will soon come.

When Christians see signs of the end times, they should know that the kingdom of God is about to come.

Jesus told disciples to be watchful, alert, and praying for strength to endure the coming tribulations. See the previous teachings on watchfulness and readiness. Christians are to watch out and be ready for the end times.

d. Relevance of Jesus’ teachings on eschatology

These teachings assure and continue to tell Christians these messages from Jesus:

a) There is life after death

b) Christ will return to receive the faithful

c) Christians are to be watchful, prayerful, and hopeful despite trials and tribulations

d) Christians are assured of God’s protection from evil.

e) Christians should prepare for the coming of Christ by leading a righteous life

f) Do not lose hope

g) Do not be pre occupied with the cares of this would for they never end

h) Preach and spread the word of God

i) Obey God’s commandment

j) Help the needy

Revision questions

a. Describe Jesus triumphant entry into Jerusalem according to Luke chapter 19:29- 30

b. What does the manner of Jesus entry into Jerusalem reveal about the nature of his kingdom?

c. What lessons can Christians learn from Jesus’ triumphant entry into Jerusalem

d. State and explain why Jesus wept over Jerusalem

e. Explain the cleansing of the temple

f. Give reasons why Jesus cleansed the temple of Jerusalem

g. What lessons can Christians learn from the cleansing of the temple?

h. Explain Jesus’ conflict with the Jewish leaders

i. Describe the parable of the tenants in the vineyard

j. Explain the relevance of the parable of the of tenants in the vineyard

k. Explain the question about paying taxes

l. Explain the question about the resurrection

m. What is eschatology?

n. What will happen at the end of the world (eschatology) according to Jesus’ teaching in Luke’s gospel 21; 5-38

o. How do Christians prepare for the second coming of Christ?

Topic Six: the Passion, Death and Resurrection of Jesus Lk. 22 – 24

Passion is a strong feeling of love, hate or anger. Passion of Jesus is the great sufferings of Jesus, which was a deep emotional anguish.

Learning outcomes By the end of this topic, you should be able to:

(a) Discuss the events of the Lord’s supper

(b) State relevance of the Lord’s supper to Christians today

(c) Describe the events that took place at mount Olives

(d) Describe the events that took place between the arrest and burial of Jesus

(e) Relate the relevance of the sufferings and death of Jesus to Christians today

(f) Explain the importance of resurrection of Jesus to Christians

(g) Describe the resurrection of Jesus – the evidence of his resurrection

(h) Narrate the ascension of Jesus

The plot against Jesus

The Jewish religious leaders were determined to ensure that Jesus was either arrested or killed (Lk.22: 1 – 6)

They were helped by Satan who entered into Judas Iscariot one of the twelve disciples of Jesus.

Judas decided to betray Jesus. He communed with the Jewish leaders who agreed to pay him money to betray Jesus.

He searched for a way to betray Jesus without knowledge of Jesus.

He forgot who was Jesus.

Judas agreed to betray Jesus probably because:

a. He belonged to the party of Zealots who wanted political changes

b. He was probably frustrated by Jesus’ approach to the Kingdom of God which was establishing a peaceful spiritual kingdom

c. He expected Jesus to establish a political kingdom

d. He was greedy for money

e. Satan entered him

Lesson One: the Lords Suppers/ the Last Supper. LK 22: 7 – 13

The last supper was the lost Passover meal that Jesus took before his arrest. Passover is celebrated in obedience to God’s command to Moses.

It is a remembrance of Israel’s deliverance by God from slavery in Egypt.

a. The Passover meal

Preparations for the Passover, Read Luke 22: 7 – 23.

Peter and John were sent by Jesus to go and prepare the Passover meal. They were to do so in a house in the city. They were taken to the house by, a man who was carrying a vessel of water.

They were given a big furnished upper room upstairs.

They prepared the Passover meal as instructed by Jesus.

Passover meal

During the meal with the 12 disciples / apostles Jesus told them that this was going to be his last meal with them before his death.

He took a cup of wine gave thanks to God and said “Take this and share it among yourselves.

I tell you that from now on I will not drink this wine until the Kingdom of God comes.” The cup of wine was his blood that he was going to shed for them.

Wine therefore symbolized the blood of Jesus, shed for the purification of humankind and forgiveness of sins.

This blood is the New Testament and covenant with Christians.

After drinking of wine, He “took a piece of bread, gave thanks to God “ and shared it and told them that the piece of bread represented his body which is “given for them”.

He presented his death as a sacrifice whose blood sealed the new covenant.

His death replaced the sacrifices of the Old law, those of animals, which sealed the Sinai covenant.

The new covenant will be for all people including Gentiles.

This is to fulfil God’s promise of salvation for all people.

Jesus and disciples ate Passover together so that henceforth Christians would eat the meal together in remembrance of Jesus. Passover was initially taken to remind them of the deliverance from Egypt.

But during the last supper, Jesus gave the Passover a new meaning.

As they ate, Jesus foretold of his betrayal by one of his disciple. SAQ.

i. Which items were used to celebrate the Passover in the Old Testament?

ii. What items do modern Christians use to celebrate the Lord’s Supper?

Comparisons of the Lord’s Supper and the Passover

(a) The Passover commemorates the divine act of redemption of the Jews from their bondage in Egypt while the Last Supper commemorates the deliverance of human kind from sin.

(b) The Passover feast reminded the Israelites that they were free, redeemed people while the Lords Suppers is to remind Christians of their forgiveness of sins.

The death of Jesus set Christians free from sins.

(c) Passover was followed by the Old covenant of Mount Sinai.

The Lords suppers is a new covenant based on the death of Jesus for sins of humankind

(d) Passover (Old testament) was sealed by the blood of Lambs while

New Covenant (Lords suppers) is sealed by the blood of Jesus on the cross.

(e) Items for celebrating in Passover (old testament) are different from the cup of wine and pieces of bread used by Jesus to celebrate his last supper with the disciples.

Relevance of the Lord’s Supper today

Christians celebrate the Lords supper. This celebration is called the Eucharist, the Lords suppers, or Lords meal.

Christians celebrate it as an act of repentance; through which they receive assurance of forgiveness of their sins.

The presence of Jesus becomes a reality when Christians share bread and wine.

Bread and wine are symbols of heavenly feast, which Christians will partake in God’s kingdom. The Lords supper is also a sacrifice of praise and thanksgiving to God.

It is a time for rededication to Christ and self-renewal.

Through the celebration of the Lords supper, Christians anticipate the second coming of Jesus and the establishment of Gods Kingdom.

It is also a time to remember the death and resurrection of Jesus and reflect on God’s love for humankind.

b. The Argument about Greatness. Read Luke, 22: 24 – 30

A question arose among the disciples. They wanted to know who among them was the greatest? Jesus told them that they do not belong to the world system of authority given on the basis of wealth and fame.

The authority among the disciples will be determined on the basis of their service to others.

The greatest is the servant. Jesus likened himself to a servant hence disciples are called to serve.

By sharing in trials and sufferings of Jesus, the disciples will share in his ruling power over the new Israel.

Leadership in church should be understood in terms of service – being a servant of people. In the community of Christians, all people who are followers of Jesus are all equal.

SAQ. In your opinion, which are the signs of greatness in the world?

c. Jesus Predicts Peters’ Denial. Read Luke, 22: 31 – 38

Jesus told peter that Satan had received permission to test or tempt all the disciples but Jesus had prayed for Peter’s faith not to fail. Jesus told Peter that he shall deny Jesus three times before the cock crows.

Jesus was telling his disciples that they will encounter hostility in their evangelism hence they should be prepared for suffering and opposition because of Him as Isaiah 53:12 says ‘he shared the fate of evil men.’

Jesus death was imminent inevitable. The disciples were expected to be strong.

Lesson Two: Prayer, Arrest of Jesus and Denial by Peter Learning Outcomes. By the end of this lesson, you shall:

a. Narrate the events that took place at Mount of Olives

b. Describe the arrest of Jesus

c. Discuss Peter’s denial of Jesus

d. Describe the arrest of Jesus

a. Prayer on the Mount of Olives. Read Luke. 22: 39 – 46

After celebrating the last supper, Jesus went to the Mount of Olives with his disciples to pray to resist temptation.

Jesus went ahead of his disciples, knelt down and prayed.

Jesus left them to pray by himself. He said” Father if you will, take this cup of suffering away from me.

Not my will, however, but your will to be done” (42). An angel came to strengthen him. He prayed earnestly, in agony and turmoil great than the physical pain.

He sweated great drops of blood. After praying, Jesus found his disciples asleep “worn out by their grief” vs. 45). Jesus asked them to wake up and pray to avoid temptation.


The disciples fell asleep. This was a sign of moral and physical exhaustion. Jesus expressed inner struggle about the fulfillment of his messianic mission. He prayed for God’s help.

Christians should always pray to avoid temptation and seek God’s help.

b. Betrayal and arrest of Jesus. Read Luke, 22: 47 – 53

Jesus was arrested by: the chief priest, elders, officers of the temple guard, and a crowd of people as he talked to his disciples.

He was taken to the house of the high priest.

Judas had identified Jesus with a kiss.

Jesus asked Judas” him “Judas, is it with a kiss that you betray the Son of man?” Jewish religious leaders had come to arrest Jesus as they arrested other criminals.

Jesus told his disciples not to resist his arrest.

He rejected armed resistance refusing the role of a political messiah. Peter followed him from a distance.

c. Peters Denies Jesus. Read Luke, 22: 54 – 65

After Jesus was arrested he was taken to the house of the High Priest.

As Peter sat warming himself with others, a maid identified Peter. She said, “This man too was with Jesus.

Peter denied knowing Jesus three times. After the third denial, the cock crowed just as Jesus predicted.

Jesus turned and looked at Peter who remembered the words of Jesus.

“Peter went out and wept bitterly” (Vs. 62). Weeping was a sign of repentance

Lesson Three: the Trials and Crucifixion of Jesus Lesson Outcomes. By the end of this lesson. You should

a. Describe trials of Jesus by the various authorities

b. Explain the importance of the judgement by Pilate

c. Narrate events leading to crucifixion of Jesus

a. Trials of Jesus by the various authorities

i. Trial by the Sanhedrin Lk.22: 66 – 71

After being taken to the house of the High Priest, the next morning Jesus was taken to the Jewish religious council or court; called the Sanhedrin.

They all asked him if he was the messiah. Jesus told they wouldn’t believe whatever he says. But “ the Son of Man will be seated on the right hand of Almighty God.” (Vs. 69).

Jesus told them he was the Son of God. The Sanhedrin accused Jesus of blasphemy, a sin punishable by death.

ii. Trial before Pilate. Read Luke 23: 1 – 5

The second court was the Roman court. The judge was Pilate, the Roman Governor.

In this court the Sanhedrin accused Jesus of:Inciting people to revolt, and rebelling against Roman authorityForbidding people to pay taxes to the EmperorClaiming to be the king, a Messiah,

They could not accuse him of blasphemy before Pilate since this offence was not acceptable under the Roman law.

Pilate asked Jesus if he was the king, Jesus replied, “ So you say”. (vs.3). Pilate found no fault with Jesus so he sent him to Herod.

iii. Trial by Herod. Read Luke, 23: 6 – 12

Herod was in Jerusalem. When Jesus was brought before him, he expected Jesus to perform miracles to impress him.

He asked Jesus many questions and Jesus kept quiet. Herod and his soldiers mocked Jesus, and ridiculed him.

They put on him royal clothes; then sent Jesus back to Pilate.

iv. Jesus is sentenced to Death. Read Luke 23: 13 – 25

Jesus was brought back to Pilate a second time. Pilate repeated that Jesus was not guilty (innocent) of any crime.

Pilate offered to have Jesus beaten and then released.

The crowds, leaders and chief priests gave their judgement. “Kill him!” and release Barabbas, who was a rioter and a murderer.

Pilate did not find Jesus guilty.

But he did what they wanted.

He released Barabbas and “ handed Jesus over for them to do as they wished” (vs. 25).

v. The crucifixion of Jesus. Read Luke 22: 26-43

Jesus was led away to be crucified.

Solders forced Simon of Cyrene to carry the cross for Jesus. Women followed Jesus and weeping. Jesus told them not to weep for Him but for themselves and their children.

Jesus was then crucified at a place called Golgotha (place of skull) or Calvary together with two male criminal; one on His right and the other on His Left.

Jesus asked God to forgive them (persecutors) for they did not know what they were doing.

The Jewish leaders, said “He saved others; let him save himself if he is the Messiah whom God has chosen” (vs. 35); Solders mocked Jesus and said “Save yourself if you are the king of Jews” and one criminal hanged with Jesus mocked Jesus and told Him “Aren’t you the Messiah? Save yourself and me”.

The other thief rebuked him saying they deserved the punishment for their deeds but Jesus had done nothing.

This thief repented and told Jesus, “Remember me, Jesus, when you come as King”. Jesus told him that he would be in paradise with Jesus on that day (vs. 42 – 43).

On top of the cross, Jews wrote, “This is the King of the Jews” (vs. 38).

Lesson Four: Death of Jesus. Read Luke. 23: 44 – 50 Learning outcomes. By the end of this lesson,

a. Describe the death of Jesus

b. Narrate the burial of Jesus

c. State relevance of the suffering and death of Jesus to Christian life today

a. The death of Jesus.

There was darkness from 12 o’clock until thee o’clock. The veil/curtain of the temple tore into two.

Jesus cried out with a loud voice “ Father, into they hands I commit my spirit”. At this shout Jesus died.

The Roman centurion saw and praised God. He declared, “Certainly this was an innocent man”. The multitude that watched the crucifixion and death went home beating their breasts, a sign of repentance.

The women, who knew Jesus from Galilee, stood at a distance watching all these things.

b. The burial of Jesus. Read Luke 23: 50 – 56.

Joseph from Arimathea, a town in Judea sought permission from Pilate to bury the body of Jesus.

He was waiting for the coming of the Kingdom of God, a likely secret disciple of Jesus.

He was a good and honorable man.

The body of Jesus was laid in a sepulchre (Tomb) where nobody had ever been laid.

Jesus’ burial in Joseph’s tomb fulfilled Isaiah’s prophecy that the suffering servant of Yahweh was buried in a rich man’s tomb (Isaiah 53:9)

The Galilean women and Joseph saw where the body of Jesus was laid.

They went home, and prepared spices to use to wash Jesus’ body. They rested on the Sabbath.

c. Relevance of the suffering and death of Jesus Christ to Christian life today

Christians today should practice or do the following activities.

i. Pray in times of sorrow, pain, trials and temptations.

iii They should not give up when rejected.

iv They should be aware of hypocrites and traitors amongst them.

v They should be willing to suffer for the sake of the Kingdom of God.

vi They should be ready to fight for a just cause.

vii They should never condemn the innocent.

viii They should go through their suffering bravely.

ix They should know and accept suffering as a part of the Christian calling.

x They should not be afraid of rejection by people

xi They should be encouraged that Jesus suffered for them.

d. In which ways can Christians prepare for their death?

Death is inevitable. Hence, Christians should at all times: live a holy life, repent sins, forgive those who have wronged them, make a will, accept death as inevitable, and read the word of God.

Lesson Five: the Resurrection of Jesus. Read Luke 24: 1 – 53

a. The Resurrection. Resurrection refers to the event of Jesus rising from the dead

After the Sabbath day, on Sunday morning; Mary Magdalene, Mary the mother of James, Salome (Joanna) and other women, went to the tomb with the spices they has prepared.

They found the entrance open. The stone covering the tomb was rolled away. The tomb was empty.

The body of Jesus was not in the tomb.

Suddenly, two men, who were angels, appeared dresses in dazzling and shining clothes.

They said “ Why are you looking among the dead for one who is alive? He is not here; he has been raised. ”

The women went and told the 11 disciples, who did not believe them.

Peter ran to the tomb and found it empty.

Women were the first to witness the resurrection of Jesus Christ.

This is significant as they (women) were empowered to become witnesses of Christ as evangelists beyond the Jewish culture.

b. Witnesses of the resurrection of Jesus

The disciples en route to Emmaus Two disciples were traveling to Emmaus, which was 11 km from Jerusalem discussing Jesus suffering, death and the empty tomb. Jesus met them but their eyes were blinded and they did not recognize him.

The disciples explained to Jesus the events that had taken place and how they had hoped that Jesus would liberate Israel from the Roman rule.

Jesus explained to them the scriptures concerning the messiah.

When they got to Emmaus, they invited him to dine with them for it was evening.

When Jesus, “took the bread and said the blessings; then he broke the bread and gave it to them”, the disciples recognized Jesus but he vanished out of their sight (vs. 30-31). They returned to Jerusalem and told the 11 disciples that jesus has risen.

c. Jesus appears to his Disciples. Read Luke 24: 36 – 49.

As the two disciples explained the event that happened on the journey to Emmaus, Jesus came and said to them ‘Peace be with you’ (vs. 36).

Disciples were terrified and frightened. He asked them to look and touch his hands, and feet.

He was not a ghost. He has flesh and bones unlike ghosts, which do not have.

He explained to the apostles his mission, which was prophesied by prophets, and written in the Law of Moses, and Psalms (v.44).

He commissioned the disciples to preach repentance and remission of sins and be his witnesses.

He also promised to send them the promise of the father (Holy Spirit)

SAQ. What was the nature of the resurrected body of Jesus?

d. The ascension of Jesus, Luke, 24: 50 – 53

From Jerusalem, Jesus took his disciples to Bethany, a town outside Jerusalem. He lifted his hands and blessed them.

As he blessed them, he was lifted up and carried to heaven The disciples worshipped him and returned to Jerusalem with great joy.

They continued to go to the temple to praise and give thanks to God.

The disciples were now confident about their mission and who Jesus was.

e. The importance of the resurrection of Jesus to Christian

Resurrection is the foundation of Christian faith. Christianity is based on the fact that Jesus resurrected and was taken up to heaven. Further to this:

1. Resurrection proved that Jesus is the Son of God.

2. Through resurrection, Christians have hope of eternal life

3. Through resurrections, Christians are assured of a new life in Christ

4. Sin and death were conquered by resurrection, giving hope of victory to Christians over death and sin.

5. Resurrection is a fulfillment of the writings of the prophets. It fulfilled Old Testament prophesies by Moses, Elijah, Elisha and others.

6. It is a proof that there is life after death.

7. Through resurrection, man was reconciled to God.

8. Jesus has power over death, over Satan and his Kingdom of darkness.

9. It led to the coming of the Holy Spirit.

Revision questions

a. Give the different names used in reference to the lord’s supper by Christians in different churches.

b. Describe the institution of the lord’s supper.

c, State the Christian teaching about the lord’s supper

d. What is the meaning of the lord’s supper to Christians?

e. Compare the Passover feast with the practice of the lord’s supper

f. Describe the prayer on mount olives

g. Describe the betrayal and arrest of Jesus

h. State the reasons that made Judas Iscariot to betray Jesus

i. Describe the trial of Jesus under the following headings:-

the council of Sanhedrin, the trial before Pilate, the trial before Herod and Pilate’s judgement.

j. Why do you think Pilate agreed to have Jesus crucified?

k. Identify and explain the lessons that Christians learn from the actions of Pilate during the trial of Jesus

l. Actions taken by the Jewish leaders to ensure that Jesus was put to death

m. Explain the crucifixion of Jesus

n. Describe the death of Jesus

o. The burial of Jesus

p. Define the term resurrection

q. Describe the four witnesses of the risen Christ

r. Describe Jesus’ appearance to the disciples

s. Describe the ascension of Jesus

t. Give five evidences from the bible to show that Jesus rose from the dead

u. Explain the significance of passion, death and the resurrection of Christ

v. What is the significance of Jesus resurrection to Christians today

w. Explain five importance of eulogy of death of the society.

Revision question and answers

Old Testament Prophesies About the Coming of the Messiah

Lesson one:

1. The prophecy of Jeremiah about the Messiah

a) He shall be a descendant of David

b) He shall be a king

c) He shall prosper

d) He shall execute judgment and justice

e) He shall ensure Judah/Israel is safe and lives in peace

f) He shall be called the lord our righteousness

2. Meaning of Messiah mean?

Messiah is a Hebrew word ‘Meshiach’ which means ‘the anointed one’. It is equivalent to ‘Christ’, a Greek word, which also means the ‘Anointed one’.

A Messiah is therefore someone called, anointed and appointed by God to serve Him in a special way.

In the Old Testament, the Priests and Kings were the only people who were anointed.

When a person is anointed oil is poured on them.

The anointed person was set aside from the rest of the people in order to serve God and His people. Examples of anointed people are Aaron (Priest) and King David. In addition, God himself anointed Prophets: for example, Samuel, Elijah, Jeremiah, and Nathan among others.

3. Jewish expectations of the Messiah in the Old Testament

The messiah shall be a political leader, a victorious ruler, a king to lead people to a time of great power and prosperity, a king in whose reign there shall be no sorrow or injustice nor fear, a king to rule forever

4. How Jesus Christ fulfilled the Old Testament prophetic of the messiah

a) He was born from the lineage of David

b) He was born of Mary, a virgin as foretold by Isaiah

c) The messiah was called Immanuel (Jesus) Isaiah prophecy

d) He was born in Bethlehem – Micah’s prophecy

e) He was referred to as “son of David” – Nathan/Jeremiah/s prophesies

f) He suffered – suffering servant prophecy by Isaiah

5. Prophets in the Old Testament who prophesied about the expected Messiah Isaiah, Nathan, Jeremiah, Micah and psalmist prophecy.


Qn 1. The qualities of john as described by angel Gabriel

a. He would be a prophet of god

b. He would prepare the way for the messiah

c. He would bring joy to Zachariah and others

d. He would be a nazarite

e. He would call people to repentance

Qn 2. Why john was referred to as the second Elijah

• Like Elijah john had also lived in the wilderness

• John was also filled with the holy spirit and proclaimed god’s message to the people

• He also met opposition from the king just like Elijah

• He was beheaded and Elijah was threatened with death by jezebel

• He stood firmly for the covenant way of life

• He was a great prophet of his time

• He led a simple life and faced many problems like hunger just like Elijah

Qn 3. What lessons do Christians learn from annunciation of the birth of john the Baptist?

• God answers prayers however long it may take

• Christians should not doubt God’s messages

• We should be persistent, faithful and patient in prayers

• Christians should be devoted to God in prayer

• Children are a gift from God and a source of joy to their parents

• God has a purpose for every child’s life

Qn 4. Describe the birth of john the Baptist

• Elizabeth was very happy and so was Zachariah

• John was circumcised after eight days in accordance with the Jewish customs

• Elizabeth named the child john

• Zachariah affirmed the name of their son in writing

• They were surprised at the name because it was not in Zechariah’s lineage

• Zechariah was now able to talk

• He broke into a hymn called the Benedictus

• Zechariah expressed his feelings of joy, gratitude and praise

• Zechariah told of the mission of his son.

Topic Two: Infancy and Early Life of Jesus

Qn 1. What lessons can Christians learn from the annunciation of the birth of Jesus Christ?

• God exalts the humble and rejects the proud

• Christians should humbly accept god’s plan for their lives

• God has a purpose for the life of every one

• Nothing is impossible with god

• God wanted Jesus Christ to be part of the human family for him to identify with the human race

Qn2. describe Mary’s visit to Elizabeth

• Mary went to visit Elizabeth after angel Gabriel told her that Elizabeth was expecting a baby

• Mary greeted Elizabeth and the baby in the Elizabeth’s womb leapt with joy

• The spirit also revealed that Mary was the most blessed of all women

• Mary sang a song known as the magnificent

Qn3. identify the main ideas in the magnificent

• Mary thanks god for

• Being good to her

• His goodness and love for all human beings

• Fulfilling his promises to the people

• Delivering the oppressed from the oppressors

Qn 4. Describe the dedication ceremony during the infancy of Jesus

• The parents of Jesus offered the purification sacrifices according to the law of Moses

• Simon was moved by the holy spirit and took Jesus into his arm and praised God

• Simon prophesied about the mission of Jesus

• Prophetess Ann thanked God for sending Jesus who would bring redemption

• The things Simon and Anne said about their child amazed the parents of Jesus.

Topic Two: the Galilean Ministry

Qn a. What is the relevance of John the Baptist teachings to Christians today?

• Christians should not fear to condemn the evils in the society

• Christians should commit their lives wholly to the work of God

• Christians should accept their role with humility and preach the gospel

• Christians should be ready to proclaim the gospel even harsh environment for the people to know God

• Christians should share their resources with the less fortunate

• Christians should be contended with their pay and thus not accept bribes

• Christians should learn to be truthful in their work environment

• Christians should pronounce the consequences of judgement to those willing to repent

Qn b. Give reasons why Jesus accepted to be baptized

• To be identified as the messiah

• To identify himself with the sinful human kind

• To receive the Holy Spirit

• For God to manifest the trinity

• It was a cleansing ritual

• To acknowledge the work of John the Baptist

• He saw it as a way of fulfilling the old testament prophesies about the Messiah

• It was his final acceptance of the work of salvation

Qn c. describe the baptism of Jesus

• When all the people were baptized Jesus was also baptized

• He was baptized by John the Baptist in river Jordan at a place called Bethbora

• Jesus was praying when the heavens opened

• The holy spirit descended from heaven upon him inform of a dove

• A voice came from heaven saying “ thou art my beloved son with thee I am well pleased

Qn d. what is the significance of the baptism of Jesus to Christians today?

• Christians get new names that symbolizes new life in Christ

• Christians receive the Holy Spirit who gives them guidance in their lives

• Christians identify themselves with Jesus and the church

• Water is symbolically used as a cleanser as it wipes away one’s sins and gives a new life

• Christians are brought together as members of the church of Christ

• During baptism Christians receive the Holy Spirit who guides them in their lives

• The old self dies and becomes a new person as a Christian

• It is the first step of being accepted into the Christian brotherhood

Lesson Three: Temptations

Qn a. describe the temptations of Jesus

• Satan told Jesus to turn stones into bread

• Jesus answered that man does not live on bread alone

• Satan then took Jesus to a high place and showed him all the kingdoms of the world.

Satan promised to give Jesus everything if Jesus worshipped him • Jesus answered that one should worship God and serve him alone

• Hastily, satin took Jesus to the pinnacle of the temple. He asked Jesus to throw himself down since God would send his angles to ensure that he did not get hurt.

Jesus answered that no one should tempt God.

Qn b. from the gospel of St. Luke, identify five occasions when Jesus was tempted

• In the wilderness

• When he healed a dumb man the commanded a sign

• Jesus was tempted to arbitrate between two brothers

• When the rich young ruler called Jesus a good teacher

• When he was asked whether it was right to pay taxes to Caesar

• In the garden of Gethsemane, he was tempted to escape the cup of suffering

• During his trial he was asked whether he was the Messiah

• During crucifixion he was spat on but did not fight back

• On the cross one of the thieves wanted him to deliver them

• He was questioned by the Sadducees about resurrection

Qn c. Outline ways in which Christians can overcome temptations in the contemporary world

• They should depend on Jesus

• They should be well versed with the scripture so that they can refer to the bible

• They should seek guidance and counseling

• They should attend bible classes for the right interpretation of the bible

• They should have faith or believe in God to help them during trials

• They should avoid bad company

• The should take part in active leisure

• They should avoid circumstances that can lead them to sin

• They should resist Satan

Qn d. Explain ways in which Christians can be tempted

• To give a bribe in order to get a job

• To engage in irresponsible sexual behaviour due to peer pressure

• To steal money entrusted to them

• To cheat in examinations

• To take drugs/alcohol

• To exploit those who serve under them in their places of work

• To keep excess change from a shopkeeper or tout

• To show off

Qn e. What lessons can Christians learn fro the temptations of Jesus?

• Since Jesus was tempted, he fully understands our difficulties

• God does not tempt us beyond our strength

• Through temptations we will also be tempted

• Through temptations and trials our faith is strengthened

• When we are tempted we should turn to the bible for guidance

• We should seek the holy spirit who enabled Jesus to conquer evil

Lesson Eight: Thesermon on the Plain:

1. Give the main teachings of Jesus on the sermon on the plain The sermon on the plain consisted of five main parts namely:

Blessings (Lk 6: 20 – 26) and woes

These are also referred to as the beatitudes. Here, Jesus had a message for the poor, the rich, those who hunger and those who are full, those who weep and those who laugh.

His concern is to show the social differences and mystery of Christian suffering.

Persecution seems to be a common phenomenon for followers of Christ.

The poor are those who cannot meet their basic needs and Luke depicts them as hungry and weeping.

The disciples are included in the poor because they have given up everything. But Jesus gives hope.

Jesus warns the rich against using their economic points to oppress the poor.

They have an opportunity, however to belong to the Kingdom by using their riches to help the needy.

Love of Enemies: (6:27-37)

Followers of Jesus are supposed to “Love your enemies, do good to those who hate, bless those who curse you, and pray for those who abuse you”.

Judging Others (6:37-43)

Disciples are expected to acknowledge their own shortcomings before they can condemn the faults in others.

Failure to recognize one’s fault is a hindrance to becoming a member of the Kingdom of God.

Evidence to Good Discipleship

The proof of a person’s goodness is seen in his deeds. The true nature of a person cannot be hidden because what they do and say will reveal their nature.

Hearing and Doing (6: 47-49)

It is not enough for His followers to proclaim Christ as Lord. They must also do what He tells them.

Q2. What is the relevance of the (beatitudes) sermon on the plain to Christians today?

The teachings on blessings and woes tell us that the goal of a person should be to inherit the Kingdom of God.

Christians should love their enemies as Jesus loved them sinful as they were.

Human beings are self-centered. It is easier to see other people’s mistakes than our own Christian should examine them before passing judgement on others.

By so doing we appreciate that we are all sinners who should seek forgiveness from God and we should always appreciate others however sinful they may be.

Be steadfast in faith and do good all the time.

Lession 9: Jesus’ Works of Compassion

Q2 Narrate the story of the forgiveness of the sinful woman (Lk 7:36-8:3)On one occasion, Jesus was invited by Simon the Pharisee to his house to eat with him.While this is a sinful woman walked into the house weeping.She began to wet Jesus’ feet with her tears and wiped them with her hair.She kissed his feet and anointed them with an ointment.When Simon saw this, he questioned Jesus’ power. If he were a prophet, He would have noticed that the woman was a sinner.And Jesus answered him the telling him about a certain creditor who has two debtors, one owed him hundred denarii and the other fifty.When asked Simon which of the two debtors would love the creditors more.Simon said the one who was forgiven more.Jesus said you have judged rightly.Then he had not given Him even water to wash His feet.But the woman used her tears to wet Jesus’ feet and wiped them using her hair and oiled them.Therefore her sins, which are many, are forgiven for she loved much, one with little love receives little more.Jesus told Simon he gave him no kiss but the woman had not stopped kissing Him.Those at table began to ask who Jesus was who ever forgiven sins?And He said to the woman, “Your faith has saved you, go in peace.”

Q3. What lessons do Christians learn from the above story?Christians should accept their sins and seek for forgiveness as the sinful woman did.Faith is important for one to be forgiven. Jesus told the woman “Your faith has save you.”A repentant sinner is greater than a righteous man (the Jewish religious leaders).It is not the magnitude of sin that matters but the attitude of a person towards his sins.Shows the importance of women in the ministry of Jesus.

Q4. Describe the story of the raising of the widow’s son at Nain (Lk 7:11- 17)After His preaching in Capernaum, Jesus went to the city of Nain.He found a man being carried out near the gate.He was the only son of a widow.When the Lord saw her, He had compassionate on her and said to her, “Do not weep.’Then He came and touched the open coffin.And those who carried him stood still.Jesus said, “Young man, arise.”And he who was dead sat up and began to speak.Jesus presented him to his mother.Then fear came among all and they glorified God.They said a great prophet has come among us. God has visited His people.

Lesson 10: Jesus’ Teaching – What Is the Importance of Parables?

1. Give reasons why Jesus used parables

• To attract the attention of his listeners

• To help his listeners understand better

• To separate the serious people from the on lookers

• To enrich his teachings

• To avoid direct confrontation with his enemies

• It was a common way of teaching those days

• To teach about God’s mercy to sinners

• To make people think critically out issues concerning God’s kingdom

• To relate patent issues with those of the future kingdom positively

Qn 2. Identify various methods used by Christians in spreading the gospel today

• Preaching

• Teaching

• Being role models

• Holding crusades

• Organizing seminars and conferences

• Electronic mechanisms e.g. sms and emails

• Print media e.g. posters and magazines

• Door to door evangelism

• Through demonstration and role play

• Through the mass media e.g. radios and TVs

• Through Christian music e.g. cassettes and C.Ds

Qn 3. Discuss the reasons why Jesus faced opposition from the Jewish leaders

• His popularity

• His interpretation of the Sabbath

• His failure to observe the law of fasting

• He associated with tax collectors

• He claimed to be the messiah

• He out rightly condemned them

• Teaching with authority

• His claims to forgive sins.

Lesson 11: Mighty Works of Jesus

Q1 Narrate the healing of the Gerasene demoniac – Lk 8:26-39.After crossing the Sea of Galilee, Jesus came across a demon – possessed man in a gentile town called Gerasa.The man had been living in the caves used for burial of the dead.He wore no clothes.When the man saw Jesus, he asked Him not to torment him.When Jesus asked him what his name was, he responded that he was called “Legion” – which stands for 2000 – 6000 soldiers.This meant that this man possessed by many demons.Jesus had sympathy and ordered the unclean spirits to leave him.Jesus let the evil spirits to go to the pigs, which were grazing nearby.They then fell into the lake and drowned.

Q2. What lesson can Christian learn from the healing of the demoniac man above?Jesus valued human life. That is why He led the evil/spirits into the pigs, which drowned into the lake and saved the man.It shows Jesus came for all regardless of tribe. This man was a gentile.Jesus heals the whole person – physically and spiritually.That Jesus has power over evil spirits.Shows that Jesus came to destroy the power of evil.It teaches that Christians have to fight the power of evil constantly.

But with Jesus’ help they will overcome it.God will never allow them to be defeated. He will come to their aid, however, much.They should give out their material possession to save those in need. This man needed help.They should tell their people about God as this man went to in his village etc.

Q3. What do the miracle of Jesus teach us about Him?They show that Jesus is the Son of God.That Jesus gets power from God.That Jesus shares his power with His disciples.The miracles show Jesus compassion to suffering people e.g. the raising of the widow’s son.They also show that Jesus is Lord. He is the life and the resurrection.That affirms that Jesus came to save man from sin.They show that Jesus is a universal savior e.g. the Gesarone demoniac who was a gentile.They were part of His teaching – they helped Him teach.Through them He showed the concern for human life, physically, spiritually and mentally.

Lesson 12: Commissioning of the Twelve Disciples (Lk 1:1-10)

Q1. What is the role of the clergy in Kenya?To preach the word of God.To advise the leaders.To warn evildoers against their sins.To condemn evil.Pray for the needy.Help the needy e.g. give them food, shelter etc.Hold seminars/workshops where they lead people into forgiveness.Being a good example for emulation.

Q2. How does the church participate in the upkeep of the clergy?By giving sadaka.By giving 1/10 of their income.They pay for their training.Fundraisings for building theological institutions.Building their residential houses in the church compound.Giving ‘matega’ – foodstuffs as part of sadaka during service.

Lesson 13: the Transfiguration

Q2. Describe the transfiguration of Jesus (Luke 9:28-37)Jesus needed encouragement and reassurance that what He was about to do was the will of His Father.Therefore He took with Him Peter, James and John and went to Mount Hermon to pray.As He prayed, His appearance was changed and His face became dazzling white.Two men, Elijah & Moses appeared and talked of His departure (death), which He was to accomplish in Jerusalem.The disciples were asleep as this happened.When they woke up, they saw glory and the two men who stood with Him.And as the men were parting form Him, Peter said to Jesus, ‘Master, it is well that we are here, Let us make booths, one for you, one for Elijah and one for Moses.As he said this, a cloud cursed the whole area and they were afraid.A voice came out of the cloud saying, ‘this is my only son, my chosen, Listen to Him.’

Q3. What is the significance of the transfiguration of Jesus (Lk 9:28-37)?A voice from heaven confirmed that Jesus was the Son of God.It strengthened the faith of the disciples so that they would continue with His work after death.It showed that Jesus had fulfilled the Old Testament prophecies and God. This is seen with the appearance of Elijah and Moses.The cloud was a symbol of God’s presence.It was a sign that Jesus’ mission was no longer a secret. It marked the onset of His passion, which would lead to His death.It confirmed to Jesus that He was doing the right thing and God was in support of His suffering.It shows that faith in prayer can lead us to God’s presence.

Topic Four: the Journey to Jerusalem

Lesson 1: Duties, Privileges and Cost of Discipleship

Q1. What are the characteristics of a true follower of Jesus?Following Jesus means accepting homelessness and enduring hardship because Jesus did not have a permanent home.Being a disciple of Jesus means self-denial and suffering.Being ready to give e.g. to the needy.To spread Christianity and make Jesus known.Following Jesus means being loyal to Him.

Q2. State the privileges of being a disciple of JesusOne becomes a member of the Kingdom of God.One is assured of eternal life.He has the joy of winning others to the Kingdom of God through preaching.

Q3 Why did Jesus choose the 12 disciples?In order to help Him in the work of spreading the good news.So as to belong to the Kingdom of God and get eternal life.To witness to his work.To share with them the power of God e.g. in performing miracles.For company as He worked.

A Commited Follower of Jesus Lk 10:25 11:1-13

(Note: Not the parable of the Samaritans)

Q1. From the teaching of Jesus on the parable of the Good Samaritan, who do you think is a committed follower of Jesus?One who understands the law and obeys it.One who understands that a neighbor is anybody who requires help regardless of their social statusOne who uses his resources selflessly to help the needyOne who is not restricted by cultural and religious practices in responding to a needy situationOne who is compassionate, kind and generousOne who shows solidarity with the suffering. This includes identifying with the needy and being ready

to experience their suffering.

Lesson 3: Jesus’ Teaching on Prayer

Q1. What did Jesus teach about prayer?Jesus taught that prayer must be persistent, use the parable of Friend at Midnight.Prayer should be done in a private place.It should be genuine.One should not be proud when praying e.g. the parable of the tax collector and the Pharisee.One should have faith during prayer.One should pray always/continuously.There is no formula in prayer. One should address God as a father.Honestly confess sin as they pray.

Qs 1 & 2 are out of topic.

Lesson 5: Jesus’ Teachings on Hypocrisy, Wealth, Watchfulness and Readiness

Q1. Hypocrisy – In what areas were the Pharisees hypocritical?In the washing of hands, cups and dishes which were done ceremoniously.

The Pharisees were too strict on this, which was not important. He told them to pay attention to issues of charity than external appearance.Tithing habits – They paid this well for the support of priests but neglected justice and love for God.He criticized them for recognition in the synagogues by taking reserved seats and their desire to be noticed at market places by wearing long white robes.He accused them of being like their ancestors who persecuted the prophets of God.

Lesson 5: Jesus’ Teachings on Hypocrisy, Wealth,Watchfulness and Readiness Read Lk: 11:13-34 : Parable of the rich fool

Q1. From the parable of the rich fool, what can Christians learn about the use of wealth?Material wealth should come second after God.We should try to help the poor.It teaches that wealth comes from God.Wealth should not be misused e.g. in drinking, etc.We should thank God for wealth received.It can make Christians to forget God.

Q2. Narrate the parable of the shrewd managerJesus taught the following parable about a rich man and his servant.A rich man wanted to sack his manager.

He called the manager and asked him for a full account of how the property was being managed.The manager knew he was going to be sacked. He made friends with some of his master’s debtors so that they would take care of him if he got sacked.One debtor who owed 100 barrels of olive oil was asked to pay 50 barrels and one who owed 1000 was asked to pay 800 barrels.The master praised him for being wise and acting property in his moment of crisis.

Lession 8: Teaching on Forgiveness

What were the teachings of Jesus on forgiveness?Jesus taught that one should forgive and forgetAll sins are equal before the eyes of God.One ought to ask for forgiveness after he has wronged.One should forgive as many times as he is offended.One should have faith when asking for forgiveness.

Persistent in Prayer

Q1. State the parable of the widow and the unjust judge 18: 1-8Jesus told the Pharisees a parable to the effect that they ought always to pray and not lose heart.In a certain city there was a judge who neither feared God nor regarded man.And there was a widow in that city which kept coming to him and wanted her right given.For a while he refused, but afterwards he said to himself, though I neither fear God nor regard man, yet because this widow bothers me, I will allow her set her right or she will wear me out by her continual coming.And the Lord said, “Hear what the unrighteous judge says, and will he not vindicate His elect who cry to Him day and night?Will he delay long over them, I, you, He will vindicate them speedily.

Lesson 10: the Way to Salvation Lk 18: 15 – 19

Q1: What did Jesus teach by using the example of little children?Jesus said, ‘Let little children come to me because the kingdom of God belongs to such as them.He went on to tell them that for one to enter God’s kingdom, he must humble himself like children.This is because children are powerless, innocent and open.Jesus taught that the kingdom of God is for those who are simple, humble, innocent and trusting like children.

Q2. Give an account of how Jesus healed the blind beggar (18:35-43)A blind man recognized Jesus as the messiah.The blind man asked Jesus to heal him.He received his sight because of his faith.He followed Jesus, giving thanks to God.To receive salvation one needs to be bold and determined.We should seek Christ to heal our physical and spiritual blindness.

Q3. Explain the relevance of Jesus’ teaching on salvation to ChristiansChristians learn that they need to repent their sins and seek forgiveness in order to receive salvation and eternal life.They need to humble themselves like children in order to earn salvation.They learn to obey the commandments of God so as to receive salvation.Use their abilities to glorify God e.g. the rich man’s parable.They too learn that wealth can be a hindrance to salvation.They learn that salvation is given to all by God.

Topic Five: the Jerusalem Ministry

Qn a. describe Jesus’ triumphant entry into Jerusalem according to Luke chapter 19: 29-30

• After his journey from Galilee ended, Jesus approached Jerusalem passing through Bethaphage, Bethany and the mount olives

• He sent two of his disciples to a village to get him a donkey on which nobody had ridden

• He gave the disciples instructions that if the owner of the donkey demanded to know why they were untying it, they were to respond, “ The lord has need for it”

• When they got the donkey, they threw their garments on it and helped Jesus to sit on it

• As Jesus rode along, they spread their garments on the road

• The crowds following him rejoiced and praised God for all the wonderful work Jesus had done this included: teaching, healing and feeding the hungry

• The crowds sang, “ Blessed is the king who comes in the name of the lord. Peace in heaven and glory in the highest”. By singing, the crowds acclaimed Jesus as king.

• The Pharisees objected to the crowds singing and asked Jesus to silence them

• Jesus responded that if his followers were silent, “ the very stones would cry out”. Insensitive than stones not to know what was happening, that is, the Messiah has come

Qn b. what does the manner of Jesus’ entry into Jerusalem reveal about the nature of the kingdom of God?

• Jesus was a descendant of David, prophesied Messiah and son of God

• Jesus is a triumphant, victorious yet a humble king. A donkey is a symbol of humility and peace. So he came to establish a peaceful kingdom

• Jesus wanted to proclaim the coming of his kingdom but not as an earthly/ military leader, thus leading them to lay their garments for him to step on. In doing this, they were acknowledging Jesus as Jerusalem’s promised king

• Jesus was greeted as a king the same way the kings of Israel were greeted with acclamation and joy

• By riding on a donkey, Jesus fulfilled the prophesy of Zechariah which says, the king is coming riding on a donkey triumphant, humble and victorious

• Christianity is not propagated through violent means but peace

Qn c. what lessons can Christians learn fro Jesus’ triumphant entry into Jerusalem?

• Christians learn that they should be prepared to receive Jesus into their lives like the crowd which escorted him to Jerusalem

• Christians also learn that they should emulate Jesus and be channels of peace in their communities

• They also learn that they should expect opposition and resistance as they witness to Christ.

They should not give up hope

• Christians learn that they should be humble like Jesus in their service to others

• Christians should thank and praise God for his intervention in their lives by sending Jesus

• They should be bold in their witnessing to Christ like the crowds that followed Jesus to Jerusalem and declared him king

Qn d. state and explain why Jesus wept over Jerusalem.

• When Jesus came close to the city of Jerusalem he wept over it saying, “ If you only knew what is needed for peace! But now you cannot see it! The time will come when your enemies will surround you with barricades block you and close in on you from every side.

They will completely destroy you and the people within your walls, not a single stone will they leave in its place because you did not recognize the time when God came to save you”.

• According to Luke, all song and rejoicing stopped suddenly when Jesus was deeply distressed at the sight of Jerusalem

• Jesus knew that Jerusalem (the city of peace) would reject his final appeal and by so doing would bring judgement down on itself. The destruction of the city is viewed as the consequence of its rejection of Jesus.

They cannot see when the true peace comes in the person of Jesus.

The coming destruction is a symbol of God’s judgement on lack of trust. The tears of Jerusalem are the tears of tragedy.

• The heart of the tragedy is that Jerusalem did not recognize the time when God came to save them.

• Now Jesus says that Jerusalem was not ready to receive him as their savior and this would lead to her ruin.

• Just like the Babylonians were God’s instrument of destruction of Jerusalem during the time of Jeremiah, so will the Romans be instruments of destruction of Jerusalem.

• Jerusalem was completely destroyed by the Roman armies in the year A.D 70

Qn e. Explain the cleansing of the temple.

• While in Jerusalem, Jesus entered the temple where he found people buying and selling

• He drove them out and overturned their tables saying that they had turned his father’s house into a den of robbers

• Here Luke uses this incidence to show how Jerusalem was still unprepared for the day of God’s visit

• Jesus carried out a symbolic act by driving out those who were buying and selling in the temple

• Jesus used the words of Jeremiah who too attacked the in his time for turning the temple into a hideout for thieves

• According to Jesus the temple will no longer give them the sense of security because it will be destroyed

• Although the temple will be destroyed, a new one will be built.

This is the Christian community, which will be a house o prayer for all nations.

The new temple will not be limited to Jesus alone but to all people

• In short Jesus is the Messiah. He exposed the unrighteousness of public life in Jerusalem by attacking the merchants in the temple

Qn f. Give reasons why Jesus cleansed the temple of Jerusalem

• The temple authorities had allowed a market in the court of the gentiles where the everyday money issued by the Roman government could be exchanged for the special temple coins which had to be used for paying the temple tax

• In the same place they could also buy the animals needed for sacrifice. This animals had to be certified as acceptable

• But both the changing of money and the certifying of animals gave ample opportunity for making exorbitant profits

• Jesus made his protest because all this trading was hiding for the real purpose of the temple and prevented Israel from being a light to the gentiles. For this reason, the temple would be destroyed because it was no longer serving as “ a house of prayer”.

Qn g. what lessons can Christians learn from the cleansing of the temple?

• Christians learn that they should respect the house of God and use it appropriately

• Christian leaders should avoid exploiting members through asking for excessive contributions

• Christians should pay more attention to inward righteousness than external observance of rituals

• Christians should have more courage like Jesus to condemn evil practices by leaders in the church and society

• Christians should be exemplary with their life styles so as to win others to the kingdom

• Finally the cleansing of the temple by Jesus provides valuable lesson to Christians who are called upon to be Christ’s ambassadors.

There are many incidents where churches have been subjected to disrespect and dishonor and this discourages many people from knowing God.

Christians should also avoid leadership wrangles, corruption, sexual abuse, gossip and many others that have caused churches to split

Qn h. explain Jesus’ conflict with the Jewish leaders

• In a series of conflicts in and around the temple between Jesus and the official leaders of the Jewish nation, the public ministry of Jesus came to its close

• After the cleansing the temple, he daily dominated the temple area teaching large crowds.

His popularity grew steadily and the leaders felt the threat against their own position.

They could not allow this to go on but they were afraid to arrest Jesus.

In the end they tried to trap him into making statements which would either get him into trouble with the Roman authorities or discredit him before the people.

• First Jesus was challenged about his authority.

The Jewish religious leaders wondered whose authority Jesus used.

They wanted to know which Rabii taught him or to which Jewish religious groups he belonged to i.e. the Pharisees or the Sadducees

• If Jesus proclaimed himself as the Messiah he could be accused before the Roman authorities for rebellion.

• If he refused to make his claim the crowds would soon leave him alone.

• But Jesus skillfully defeated his adversaries.

He invited them to answer their own question. “ Tell me, did John’s right to baptize come from God or human beings?”

• Whatever answer they gave to Jesus’ question about John the Baptist would apply in even stronger measures to their own question about Jesus

• But they had never supported John and they could no now admit that his right to baptize came from God.

• If they did they would also have to accept Jesus whom John had announced.

Neither could they say John was a prophet for that would bring trouble from the people who held John in high self-esteem

Qn i. Describe the parable of the tenants in the vineyard

• After the question of Jesus’ authority, Jesus challenged the Jewish leaders by telling them the parable of the wicked tenants.

He said that there was once a man who planted a vineyard, let it to the tenants and then left home for a long time

• When the time came to gather the grapes, he sent a slave to the tenants to receive from them his share of the harvest but the tenants beat the slaves and sent him back without a thing.

The same treatment was given to the second and the third slave

• The owner decided to send his own son whom they killed.

He therefore decided to come by himself, killed the tenants and handed over the vineyard to other men

• When the people heard this they said, “surely not” but Jesus explained to them “the stone which the builders rejected as worthless turned out to be the most important of all.

And every one who falls on the stone will be cut to pieces and if that stone falls on someone, it will crush him to dust

• In this parable, the vineyard represents God’s kingdom, Israel.

The servants are the prophets sent to Israel and they are rejected.

The son here represents Jesus and the owner is God who will bring judgement on Israel

• The stone that the builders rejected has become the cornerstone this shows that Jesus saw himself as the rejected but most important.

He makes a new foundation of Israel for both Jews and Gentiles.

On hearing this, the Pharisees wanted to seize Jesus but were afraid of the people

Qn j. what is the relevance of the parable of the tenants?

• Over the centuries the situation has not changed. Jesus is still rejected by nations and by men.

• What happened to Jesus happened as he foretold those who follow him.

• Church history reveals many examples of men rejected by political and religious leaders and by the people their time and who have later been seen as the key man in the revelation of God’s purpose

• As Christians we should also pray for strength and guidance from God to be able to deal with rejection

• As Christians we should not fear rejection but stand firm for the truth

• Christians should also seek pastoral counseling fro the church leaders and other Christians. When we endure persecution we may be finally proved right

Qn k. the question about paying taxes

• The teachers of law and the chief priest, after falling to arrest Jesus bribed some spies to ask whether it was right for them to pay taxes to Caesar or not

• The Israelites were compelled to pay taxes to the Romans who controlled them

• Many resented this because according to them payment of taxes using coins which had some emperors image was a violation of the Jewish law which forbade the use of images

• If Jesus would tell them to pay, the people would be against him for supporting Roman rule over them

• Many resented this because according to them people would be against him for supporting Roman rule over them

• If he told them not to pay, they would accuse him to the Roman authorities

• Jesus knew their trick and wanted his questioners to make their own decision about the issue

• According to him it was right for the Roman government to exert the tax payments without demeaning God’s authority

• In other words, by having the silver coin in their possession, the Jews accepted Roman authority

• They had a duty to pay tax to the emperor because they enjoyed the benefit of the Roman rule

• At the same time they had a duty to be loyal to God. A person’s loyalty should not be owed to the state or Caesar

Qn l. explain the question about resurrection

• The Sadducees raised the question concerning marriage an resurrection or life after death

• They asked Jesus whose wife a woman would be in the resurrection when she married seven brothers who had died without bearing children.

• The question was meant or designed to make Jesus look foolish thus to shame him. This would undermine the popular support that we had prevented action against Jesus

• In his response, Jesus made the following observations

• He does not accept the assumption that marriage continues after resurrection

• Quoting from exodus a book that the Sadducees accepted, Jesus confirms that there is life after death

• The resurrection life is different from earthly life

• It is a new existence where those who resurrect, live with God as his children in eternity

Qn m. what is eschatology?

• The term eschatology is derived from two Greek words ’Eschatus’ and ‘Lagos’, which means end and study respectively

• Eschatology therefore is the study of the last things such as death, judgement, life after death and the end of the world

• Jesus talked about the end of the world to his disciples just before he was arrested

Qn n. what will happen at the end of the world (eschatology) according to Jesus’ teaching in Luke’s gospel 21: 5-38?

• Jesus taught hi disciples about the end times in the temple of Jerusalem

• In his speech, he talked about what will happen to the city of Jerusalem and the world at the end of time

• Jerusalem was going to be destroyed because of her refusal to recognize and accept the Messiah

• Jesus told the disciples of the signs that would accompany the end of the world

• People come claiming to be Jesus the Messiah, the son of God

• There will be wars between nations

• Natural calamities like earthquakes, famines and plagues will occur

• Strange heavenly beings will come from the sky

• There will be disruption in the sky and in the sea

• All nations will be in despair

• People will faint from fear as they witness these signs

• At the end of all these, the son of man will appear in power and glory

• Jesus’ teaching of the end times was meant to provide encouragement to the disciples in difficult times

• They were expected to have hope

Qn o. how do Christians prepare for the second coming of Christ?

• Christians should prepare for the second coming of Christ by not losing hope in the face of trials and tribulations because the kingdom of God with its promises of a new life will definitely come

• They prepare for his second coming by leading a righteous life. They are to avoid too much feasting and drinking

• They should prepare by being watchful through prayers so that God will give them courage and strength to stand firm in their faith

• They should prepare by preaching the word of God to those who have not heard it

• They should prepare by being obedient to God’s commandments

• They should prepare by helping the needy

• They should prepare by preaching and evangelizing and converting others

Topic Six: the Passion, Death and Resurrection of Jesus Christ The Lord’s Supper

Qn a. give the different names used in reference to the Lord’s Supper by Christians in different churches

• The holy Eucharist

• The mass

• The lord’s table or the table of the lord

• The Holy Communion

• The Last Supper

• The breaking of bread

• The sacrament

Qn b. describe the institution of the Lord’s Supper

• Jesus was at the last supper with his disciples the night he was betrayed

• In the room which had been arranged by Jesus. He told his disciples how much he had longed to eat the Passover meal with them before he suffered death

• He took a piece of bread and gave thanks to God and broke it. He gave it to them saying, “ this is my body which is given for you. So do this in memory of me”

• He took a cup of wine and gave thanks to God and said “ take this and share it among yourselves”

• He also gave them a cup of wine after supper saying “ this cup is God’s new covenant sealed with my blood which is poured out for you

Qn c. state the Christian teachings about the Lord’s Supper

• The Last Supper was inaugurated by Jesus

• It’s celebration of the crucified and rise Christ

• The Lord’s Supper is a gift from God

• It is a sacrifice of praise and thanks giving

• It is the church’s effective proclamation of God’s mighty works acts and promises

• It is a sign of the unity of the church or the believers

• It is a new paschal meal of the church. The meal, which by visible signs communicates God’s love in Jesus Christ. It is the sacrament of Christ’s real presence

• The bread is a symbol of the body of Christ which was crucified

• The wine or cup is a symbol of his blood, which was shed. It is the blood of the new covenant

• It is a fore state of Christ’s passion and of the final kingdom. It is symbolic of the heavenly banquet

• It is central to Christian worship. (Eucharist)

Qn d. what is the meaning of the Lord’s Supper to Christians?

• The sacramental meal communicates God’s love in Christ

• The washing of the disciples feet by Jesus signifies humble service to and love for one another

• They proclaim the lord’s death until his second coming

• They share in the body of Christ

• The unity of Christians is evidenced

• The bread symbolizes the body of Jesus which was crucified on the cross for the sins of human kind and for the healing of their diseases

• The wine symbolizes the blood of Jesus which was shed for forgiveness of sins

• The wine also symbolizes the sealing of a new covenant

• The partaking of the Lord’s Supper strengthens the faith of believers in that, Christ’s presence is felt and in this way they constantly keep in touch with him

• The lord’s supper enhances a personal relationship between the individual believer ad Christ

• It is thanksgiving to God for everything accomplished in creation, redemption and sanctification

• Through the Holy Communion, Christians offer themselves as a holy and living sacrifice. They rededicate and renew themselves. Those who share in the sacred meal declare their loyalty to Christ

• The Lord’s Supper is an act of repentance. The partakers receive reassurance of the forgiveness of sins and are assured of salvation

• The bread and the wine which represents the body and blood of Jesus become the final sacrifice replacing all O.T sacrifices that were offered for the salvation of the human race

Qn f. Prayer on mount olives

• After celebrating the last supper, Jesus and his disciples went to mount olives

• He knelt down and prayed and asked his disciples to join him

• In response, God sent an angel from heaven to encourage him

• Jesus prayed in agony until his sweat was like drops of blood

• This sweat which was like blood was an indication of the struggle and agony he went through to accept the will of his father

• Though Jesus suffered agony and turmoil, he approached it with great courage and composure

• His suffering was even greater for it involved more than physical pain. It meant bearing the sin of the world

• So he prayed to God, his father to give him strength for his coming mission

• When he went back to his disciples, he found them asleep a sign of moral and physical exhaustion or maybe it was an indication that they were in sorrow because Jesus had told them he was about to be crucified

• In conclusion, we can say that Jesus expressed an inner struggle about the fulfillment of his Messianic mission. So he prayed to God to help him bear the suffering. Prayer was very important in Jesus’ ministry

Qn g. describe the betrayal and arrest of Jesus

• When Jesus came down from Mt. Olives he met a multitude of people

• Judas Iscariot appeared accompanied by a large crowd, the chief priest, elders and the temple guards who had ordered to arrest Jesus

• Judas Iscariot came forth and kissed Jesus. This was a sign identifying Jesus as the man they were looking for. That kiss was the betrayal

• When the disciples noticed what was happening one of them used his sword to cut off the ear of a high priest’s slave

• In other words Jesus stopped his disciples from resisting his arrest

• By rejecting armed assistance, Jesus was refusing the role of a political Messiah

• Jesus was arrested and taken to the house of the chief priest Annas

Qn h. state the reasons that made Judas Iscariot to betray Jesus

• He lacked moral courage to stand by Jesus during his moment

• He could have been an informer of the Jewish religious leaders

• He was overcome by the power of evil

• He was disappointed by Jesus’ teaching on spiritual kingdom rather than fulfilling the Jewish expectation of a political Messiah who could liberate them from the Roman rule

• He was a mercenary motivated by greed for money

• He had little faith in Jesus or lost his trust in Jesus Christ

• He was not loyal to the master

• He was a northerner who felt foreign and thus was jealous against other disciples

• He was a zealot who believed in war rather than peace

The council of Sanhedrin

• Jesus was brought to the Sanhedrin council early in the morning following his arrest

• The council of elders asked him if he was the Messiah

• Jesus responded by speaking of the son of the man coming in triumph

• The Sanhedrin accused him of the sin of blasphemy for allegedly claiming to be the son of God

• He was condemned to die for alleged blasphemy

• In the Jewish law, blasphemy was punishable by death The trial before Pilate

• Since the Sanhedrin could not carry out the death sentence, they took Jesus to the Roman governor Pilate

• They accused Jesus of inciting the people to revolt, forbidding payment of taxes and claiming to be a king in rebellion to Roman authority

• They could not accuse Jesus of blasphemy. This charge would not be accepted under Roman law

• However, by taking Jesus to Pilate, the Jewish religious leaders wanted the Roman authority to take responsibility for Jesus’ death

The trial before Herod

• Jesus’ ministry works had mesmerized Herod. So when Pilate learned that Jesus was from Galilee, he handed him over to Herod who was the district officer of Galilee and happened to be in Jerusalem at that time

• The trial of Jesus before Herod (only mentioned in St. Luke’s gospel) is not really a trial because king Herod only wanted to satisfy his curiosity about Jesus

• He joined the soldiers in mocking Jesus

• Jesus refused to answer Herod’s questions and he consequently sent Jesus back to Pilate

• Interestingly the mockery by Herod and his soldiers as another step in the public ridicule of Jesus. It will continue as he hangs on the cross

Pilate’s judgement

• Jesus was brought to Pilate a second time

• Pilate reiterated that he found Jesus not guilty of any crime

• The chief priests prevailed upon Pilate who passed a sentence of death on Jesus to die by crucifixion.

This was the punishment of high treason according to the Roman law

• The Jewish leaders asked that Barnabas a criminal be released instead of Jesus

• It was customary for a convicted person to be released during the Passover

• So the Jewish leaders and not the Jewish people or Pilate were responsible for Jesus’ death

• Jesus was killed because of the blind hatred of the Jewish leaders

Qn j. why do you think Pilate agreed to have Jesus crucified?

• He was afraid of a Jew revolt. It was his duty to maintain peace in his territory in accordance with the expectations of the Roman emperor. If he had released Jesus, the Jew would have caused a disturbance

• He did not want to be disloyal to the Roman emperor after learning that Jesus had been accused of treason. Disloyalty could have resulted in losing favor with the emperor and consequently his job

• He washed his hands. This means that he was absolving himself of the guilt of having Jesus crucified.

This is because he had learnt from the Jewish leaders that Jesus was the Son of God.

His wife had also cautioned him about Jesus’ innocence. Pilate himself had found no evidence to convict Jesus

Qn k. identify and explain the lessons that Christians learn from the actions of Pilate during the trial of Jesus

• Jesus is the king of the Jews

• Jesus is without sin. Pilate found no guilt in Jesus and he sent him to Herod

• Pilate gave in to their demands on the grounds of treason- Christians should refrain from giving false witness

• Pilate was afraid of a revolt. It was his duty to maintain peace as a Roman officer. Christians learn that they should not be compromised by worldly standards

• Christians should stand firm for the truth because the truth will always prevail

• Christians should strive not to loose favour with God. They should desire to please God rather than man

• Pilate washed his hands he learnt that Jesus is truly the son of God (innocent)

• Great evil can happen when the truth is at the mercy of political pressure

• Christians should take time before making decisions

• Resisting the truth leaves a person without purpose or direction

Qn l. actions taken by the Jewish leaders to ensure that Jesus was put to death

• They paid Judas Iscariot to betray him

• They bought false witnesses to accuse him of blasphemy before Sanhedrin/ blasphemy was punishable by stoning to death

• They hurriedly tried Jesus at night before people knew what was happening

• They framed treason charge against Jesus when he appeared before Pilate/ treason carried a death sentence

• They employed armed temple guards and armored soldiers to deal with those who would fight for Jesus

• They blackmailed Pilate to have Jesus crucified

• They organized a mob to shout for the death of Jesus and release of Barnabas

• They crucified him dead when they got permission from Pilate

Qn m. explain the crucifixion of Jesus

• Jesus was given the cross beam to carry to his crucifixion site

• Simon of Cyrene helped him carry it

• A group of women followed Jesus and wept over his plight

• Jesus asked them to weep over themselves and their children

• He talked about the impending destruction coming over Jerusalem

• Jesus eventually arrived at Golgotha and was nailed on the cross

• Two criminals were crucified on either of his sides

• After his crucifixion, the soldiers cast lots to divide his garments. This action fulfilled psalms 22: 18,

Jesus is the righteous Messiah who suffers unjustly and is mocked by people as he cries to God

• The soldiers, Jewish leaders and one of the thieves mocked Jesus for claiming to be the royal Messiah

• Jesus is mocked with the challenge to save himself

• One of the criminals crucified with Jesus usually referred to as the repentant thief acknowledged Jesus as the Messiah and admitted the justness of his own condemnation

• Above Jesus it was written, “ this is the king of Jews”

• Jesus forgave his killers and all those who had accused him falsely. He promised one of the thieves hanging on the cross a place in paradise

Qn n. describe the death of Jesus

• The death of Jesus was preceded by extra ordinary happenings

• Darkness covered the land for three hours

• The curtain in the temple tore into two

• Jesus died after crying “ father into thy hands I commit my spirit”

• On seeing Jesus die, the Roman centurion who was present testified to Jesus’ innocence. As he recognized Jesus’ lordship

• In his death, Jesus showed total commitment to God’s will

Qn o. the burial of Jesus

• Joseph of Arimathea, a rich and righteous member of the Sanhedrin asked Pilate to allow him bury Jesus

• Joseph could have been a secret disciple of Jesus

• Jesus’ burial in Joseph’s grave fulfilled Isaiah’s prophesy concerning the suffering servant of Yahweh who was buried in a rich man’s tomb

• A group of women followed Joseph and saw where he buried Jesus

• They went back home to prepare spices with which to wash Jesus’ body after the Sabbath

• Jesus was indeed a king judged by the way he was buried

The Resurrection:

Qn p. define the term resurrection

The term resurrection refers to the event of Jesus rising from the dead.

This event took place on the third day i.e. the Sunday morning after Jesus was crucified on Friday afternoon

Qn q. the witnesses of the risen Christ

The testimony of the repentant thief

• He rebuked his unrepentant companion

• He recognized his own sinful condition

• He declared Jesus to be sinless

• He professed in Jesus’ true Messiah-ship and Lordship

• He recognized that Jesus would live and exercise his saving power after he died

The testimony of Joseph of Arimathea

• Joseph of Arimathea was a secret disciple of Christ

• He witnessed to the lordship of Jesus Christ after his death by his actions

• He did this by seeking permission from Pilate to bury the body of Jesus

• By giving Jesus this royal burial he was witnessing to the truth that Jesus

was king

Testimony of the holy woman

• On the day after the Sabbath, Mary Magdalene and Mary the mother of Jesus went to the tomb planning to prepare Jesus’ body for a proper burial

• On arrival, they found the stone covering the tomb had been rolled away

• The tomb was also empty

• Two men in dazzling clothes confirmed that Jesus had risen as he had prophesied. The two men were angles

• When the women learnt of Jesus’ resurrection, they broke the news to the apostils and all the others.

The apostles rejected the women’s testimony

The testimony of disciples on their way to Emmaus

• Jesus appeared to the disciples who were on their way to Emmaus

• They were discussing Jesus’ suffering, death and the empty tomb

• They regarded Jesus’ death as a tragedy, for they had hoped he would liberate the Jews from the Roman rule

• Jesus explained to the scriptures, which say the messiah would suffer to reach his glory.

• They invited Jesus to dine with them

• Jesus shared the Holy Eucharist with them before they recognized whom he was at the breaking of the bread

• The disciples at Emmaus thus became the second witnesses to the risen Christ.

The effect of this testimony is that the disciples went and told the eleven apostles about their encounter with the risen Christ

Qn r. the appearance of Jesus to the disciples

• As the disciples narrated their encounter with Jesus to the eleven apostles, Jesus appeared to them

• Jesus asked them to confirm that he had risen by touching his body

• He explained to the apostles his mission through telling them the prophesies about him in the law of Moses, prophets and psalms

• Jesus brought his disciples to be witnesses by proclaiming repentance and forgiveness of sins

• He tested some cooked fish

• He promised that he was going to be with them through the power of the Holy Spirit

The Ascension of Jesus Qn s. Describe the ascension of Jesus

• From Jerusalem Jesus led his disciples to Bethany

• He raised his hands blessed the disciples and lifted to heaven

• The disciples returned and witnessed Jesus’ ascension with joy

• They continued to go to the temple to pray to God waiting for the holy spirit that Jesus had promised them

• From this incidence where Jesus blessed the disciples, we learn that the disciples became confident about their mission. This earlier disbelief and blindness to who Jesus was now overcome

Qn t. Give five evidences from the bible that show that Jesus Christ rose from the dead

• The tomb was empty

• Assurance of the angle to the women that Jesus had risen

• Thomas witnessed the resurrection by feeling the scars on Jesus’ hands

• The women who had gone to the tomb had found it empty

• The disciples witnessed his resurrection when he appeared to the two disciples at Emmaus

• Jesus shared a meal with his disciples after his resurrection in Jerusalem

• Jesus walked with the disciples up to Bethany prior to his ascension

Qn t. explain the significance of passion, death and the resurrection of Jesus to Christian life

• The passion deed and resurrection refers to seven incidences namely, Jesus’ last supper, suffering in the garden, suffering before Sanhedrin, Pilate and Herod; mocking by the soldiers, death on the cross, resurrection and ascension

• Those events are of great significance to the modern Christians. First they proof that Jesus was indeed the son of God and the Messiah

• The passion, death and resurrection of Jesus Christ was a fulfillment of the old testament prophesies and Psalms

• The resurrection resulted in the rapid spread of the church. The spread of the church is as a result of the risen Christ and the influence of the Holy Spirit

• The resurrection is thus the basis/ the central idea or foundation in the Christian faith and missionary activity;

if Christ has not been raised, then our preaching is useless and you believing it is useless

• The passion, death and resurrection reveal the power of God to those who believe in him.

They also prove that Jesus who was God’s triumphant envoy is alive and Christians are assured living again after the physical death

• The raising of Jesus from the dead proved that Jesus was not only man but lord over human life so that Christians share in his life on earth by believing in him and living according to the fruits of the holy spirit

• The resurrection of Jesus is a source of inspiration and confidence in Christians. It also points to the fact that Jesus was a man of his word i.e. he fore told the resurrection and it came to pass.

His resurrection was a real fact because he showed his disciples the crucifixion marks

• All that happened during the passion, death and resurrection of Christ was just a completion of God’s revelation through Christ

• They also point to the power and glory of God in which those who believe share in the hope of their own resurrection in the second coming of Jesus

Qn v. the significance of Jesus’ resurrection to Christians today

• It is the foundation of the Christian faith and hope which their belief would be useless

• Christian faith would be in vain (futile) if Jesus had not resurrected

• Through resurrection Christians have confidence and hope in God because the one they believe in has been exalted and sits at the right hand of God almighty

• Through the resurrection, Christians are given hope of eternal life

• The resurrection of Jesus led to the coming of the holy spirit which helps Christians to live according to the teachings of Christ, preach the gospel and speak boldly against the evils in the society

• The resurrection give meaning to baptism in that one dies in sin and is raised with Christ to new life

• The resurrection confirms the divinity of Jesus as the true son of God

• The resurrection gives Christians courage to face death because they have hope of resurrecting at his second return

• It is remembered by Christians during the Eucharist

Qn w. explain five importance of Eulogy of death in the society today

• It enables mourners to know the cause or nature of death

• It enables the mourners to forgive the dead person incase of any grudge between them and the dead person

• It enables the mourners to ask for forgiveness from the dead person

• It enables the mourners know the wish or last words of the deceased before he/ she died

• Mourners have an opportunity to declare what they owe or are owed by the dead

• It enables mourners to know the contribution of work of the dead to the society

• It provides the mourners with an opportunity to know the nature or character of the dead and his/her social life

• It enables mourners to know the background or life history of the deceased e.g. education.